A Gram-negative, short-rod-shaped, motile, non-spore-forming and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacterial strain, designated wsw-7T, was isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond in Taiwan and was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the closest relatives of strain wsw-7T were Delftia lacustris 332T, Delftia tsuruhatensis T7T and Delftia acidovorans ATCC 15668T, with sequence similarities of 98.5, 98.4 and 97.9 %, respectively. Phylogenetic trees obtained with 16S rRNA gene sequences or the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) gene sequences revealed that strain wsw-7T and these three closest relatives formed an independent phylogenetic clade within the order Burkholderiales . Strain wsw-7T contained summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c as predominant fatty acids. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 67.6 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an uncharacterized aminolipid and several uncharacterized phospholipids. On the basis of the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain wsw-7T represents a novel species in the genus Delftia , for which the name Delftia litopenaei sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is wsw-7T ( = BCRC 80212T = LMG 25724T).
A bacterial isolate, designated strain TS3T, was isolated from soil collected from a metal mine in Tieshan District, Daye City, Hubei Province, in central China. Cells of this strain were Gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped. The strain had ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acids. The G+C content was 65.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TS3T was most closely related to Massilia niastensis 5516S-1T (98.5 %), Massilia consociata CCUG 58010T (97.6 %), Massilia aerilata 5516S-11T (97.4 %) and Massilia varians CCUG 35299T (97.2 %). DNA–DNA hybridization revealed low relatedness between strain TS3T and M. niastensis KACC 12599T (36.5 %), M. consociata CCUG 58010T (27.1 %), M. aerilata KACC 12505T (22.7 %) and M. varians CCUG 35299T (46.5 %). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain TS3T belongs to the genus Massilia , but is clearly differentiated from other members of the genus. The strain represents a novel species, for which the name Massilia tieshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TS3T ( = CCTCC AB 2010202T = KACC 14940T).
A novel Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain M97T, was isolated from marine sediment of a cage-cultured ark clam farm on the south coast of Korea. Strain M97T was positive for oxidase and catalase. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, with 1–2 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7–8. The main cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c, C12 : 0 3-OH and cyclo-C19 : 0ω8c. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unknown aminolipid and three unknown lipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain M97T belongs to the genus Tropicimonas , with highest sequence similarity to Tropicimonas aquimaris DPG-21T (99.0 %). The DNA G+C content of strain M97T was 68.5 mol%. Mean DNA–DNA relatedness between strain M97T and T. aquimaris DPG-21T was 46±10 %. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses, strain M97T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tropicimonas , for which the name Tropicimonas sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M97T ( = KACC 15544T = JCM 17731T).
A marine, magnetotactic bacterium, designated strain MMS-1T, was isolated from mud and water from a salt marsh in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, after enrichment in defined oxygen-concentration/redox-gradient medium. Strain MMS-1T is an obligate microaerophile capable of chemoorganoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic growth. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.0 and 24–26 °C. Chemolithoautotrophic growth occurred with thiosulfate as the electron donor and autotrophic carbon fixation was via the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. The G+C content of the DNA of strain MMS-1T was 47.2 mol%. Cells were Gram-negative and morphologically variable, with shapes that ranged from that of a lima bean to fully helical. Cells were motile by means of a single flagellum at each end of the cell (amphitrichous). Regardless of whether grown in liquid or semi-solid cultures, strain MMS-1T displayed only polar magnetotaxis and possessed a single chain of magnetosomes containing elongated octahedral crystals of magnetite, positioned along the long axis of the cell. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MMS-1T belongs to the family Rhodospirillaceae within the Alphaproteobacteria , and is distantly related to species of the genus Magnetospirillum . Strain MMS-1T is therefore considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Magnetospira thiophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Magnetospira thiophila is MMS-1T ( = ATCC BAA-1438T = JCM 17960T).
A group of nine Gram-negative staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strains isolated from native oak trees displaying symptoms of acute oak decline (AOD) in the UK were investigated using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates form a distinct lineage within the genus Brenneria , family Enterobacteriaceae , and are most closely related to Brenneria rubrifaciens (97.6 % sequence similarity to the type strain). Multilocus sequence analysis based on four housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD) confirmed their position within the genus Brenneria , while DNA–DNA hybridization indicated that the isolates belong to a single taxon. The isolates can be differentiated phenotypically from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The phylogenetic and phenotypic data demonstrate that these isolates from oak with symptoms of AOD represent a novel species in the genus Brenneria , for which the name Brenneria goodwinii sp. nov. (type strain FRB 141T = R-43656T = BCC 845T = LMG 26270T = NCPPB 4484T) is proposed.
Bacterial strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 were isolated from the subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site where the sediments are co-contaminated with large amounts of acids, nitrate, metal radionuclides and other heavy metals. A combination of physiological and genetic assays indicated that these strains represent the first member of the genus Rhodanobacter shown to be capable of complete denitrification. Cells of strain 2APBS1T and 116-2 were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rods, 3–5 µm long and 0.25–0.5 µm in diameter. The isolates were facultative anaerobes, and had temperature and pH optima for growth of 30 °C and pH 6.5; they were able to tolerate up to 2.0 % NaCl, although growth improved in its absence. Strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 contained fatty acid and quinone (ubiquinone-8; 100 %) profiles that are characteristic features of the genus Rhodanobacter . Although strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhodanobacter thiooxydans LCS2T (>99 %), levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between these strains were substantially below the 70 % threshold used to designate novel species. Thus, based on genotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological differences, strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Rhodanobacter , for which the name Rhodanobacter denitrificans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2APBS1T ( = DSM 23569T = JCM 17641T).
A moderately thermophilic, anaerobic, dissimilatory iron(III)-reducing bacterium (strain S3R1T) was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney located on the Eastern Lau Spreading Centre in the Pacific Ocean at a depth of about 2150 m. Cells of strain S3R1T were ovals to short rods with a single polar flagellum, Gram-stain-negative, 0.5–0.6 µm in diameter and 0.8–1.3 µm long, growing singly or in pairs. The temperature range for growth was 36–62 °C, with an optimum at 50 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5–7.5, with an optimum at pH 6.5. Growth of strain S3R1T was observed at NaCl concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 % (w/v), with an optimum at 2.0–2.5 % (w/v). The isolate used acetate, fumarate, malate, maleinate, succinate, propanol, palmitate, stearate, peptone and yeast extract as electron donors for growth and iron(III) reduction. All electron donors were oxidized completely to CO2 and H2O. Iron(III) (in the form of ferrihydrite, ferric citrate or ferric nitrilotriacetate) and elemental sulfur (S0) were the electron acceptors that supported growth. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the novel bacterium was related to representatives of the orders Desulfuromonadales and Syntrophobacterales with 84–86 % sequence similarity and formed a distinct phylogenetic branch in the Deltaproteobacteria . On the basis of its physiological properties and results of phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that the new isolate represents the sole species of a novel genus, Deferrisoma camini gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Deferrisoma camini is S3R1T ( = DSM 24185T = VKM B-2672T).
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated F3T, was isolated from a saline soil sample in China and studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain F3T was affiliated with the genus Brevundimonas , with Brevundimonas kwangchunensis KSL-102T (98.4 % similarity) and Brevundimonas alba DSM 4736T (98.2 %) as its closest relatives. Strain F3T contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c, C17 : 1ω8c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain F3T was 66.7 mol%. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain F3T and the type strains of closely related Brevundimonas species were below 22 %. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness, strain F3T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Brevundimonas , for which the name Brevundimonas viscosa sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F3T ( = CGMCC 1.10683T = JCM 17426T).
A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod (CC-LN1-12T) was isolated from coastal soil samples of Lutao Island (Green Island), Taiwan, and its taxonomic position was studied. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that isolate CC-LN1-12T was grouped into the Microbulbifer cluster, with the highest similarities to Microbulbifer okinawensis ABABA23T (97.9 %), Microbulbifer maritimus TF-17T (97.7 %) and Microbulbifer donghaiensis CN85T (97.7 %), similarities to all other species of the genus Microbulbifer were lower than 96.8 %. The polyamine pattern contained the major compounds spermidine and cadaverine. The fatty acid profile, comprising the major fatty acids iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c, C18 : 1ω7c and iso-C11 : 0 3-OH as the major hydroxylated fatty acid, supported the affiliation of strain CC-LN1-12T to the genus Microbulbifer . DNA–DNA hybridizations between strain CC-LN1-12T and Microbulbifer okinawensis ABABA23T, M. donghaiensis CN85T and M. maritimus JCM 12187T resulted in relatedness values of 21.5 % (14.3 %, reciprocal analysis), 35.9 % (48.5 %, reciprocal analysis) and 48.1 % (52.1 %, reciprocal analysis), respectively. From these data, as well as from physiological and biochemical tests, strain CC-LN1-12T could be clearly differentiated from the most closely related species of the genus Microbulbifer . It is concluded that strain CC-LN1-12T represents a novel species, for which the name Microbulbifer taiwanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-LN1-12T ( = LMG 26125T = CCM 7856T).
Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from root nodules of Lupinus polyphyllus, Lathyrus latifolius and Robinia pseudoacacia. Based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, they were closely related to Bosea species (100–97 % similarity), belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria , family Bradyrhizobiaceae . The closest relatives of LMG 26383T, LMG 26379T and LMG 26381T were respectively the type strains of Bosea thiooxidans (99.6 %), B. eneae (98.3 %) and B. minatitlanensis (99.0 %). Chemotaxonomic data, including major fatty acid profiles, supported the assignment of our strains to the genus Bosea . Analysis of the concatenated sequences of five housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, recA and rpoB) and the results of DNA–DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of our strains from each other and from the five Bosea species with validly published names. No nodA or nodC genes could be amplified, while nifH PCR gave non-specific products. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, three novel species, Bosea lupini sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26383T = CCUG 61248T = R-45681T), Bosea lathyri sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26379T = CCUG 61247T = R-46060T) and Bosea robiniae sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26381T = CCUG 61249T = R-46070T), are proposed.
Two groups of Gram-negative, aerobic bacterial strains previously isolated from experimental biofilters were investigated to determine their taxonomic position. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates formed two distinct groups within the genus Aquamicrobium . The gene sequence similarities of the new isolates to the type strains of Aquamicrobium species were below 98.3 %. The presence of ubiquinone-10, C18 : 1 cis 11 as the predominant fatty acid and a polar lipid pattern with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine was in accordance with the characteristics of this genus. The results of DNA–DNA hybridization, biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from all recognized species of the genus Aquamicrobium . Therefore, the isolates were assigned to two novel species of this genus for which the names Aquamicrobium ahrensii sp. nov. (type strain 905/1T = DSM 19730T = CCUG 55251T) and Aquamicrobium segne sp. nov. (type strain 1006/1T = DSM 19714T = CCUG 55250T) are proposed. An emended description of the genus Aquamicrobium is also presented.
An oval to rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, phototrophic bacterium, strain JA738T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a pink pond. Strain JA738T was non-motile and had vesicular-type intracellular photosynthetic membranes. Bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene series were present as the major photosynthetic pigments. Strain JA738T required thiamine and pantothenate for growth. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 1ω5c, C18 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c11-methyl; minor amounts of C10 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0 were also present. The major quinone was Q-10 and major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified sulfolipids (SL1–2). Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JA738T clustered with species of the genus Rhodovulum in the class Alphaproteobacteria . Strain JA738T was most closely related to Rhodovulum adriaticum DSM 2781T (96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum (<96.1 %). On the basis of phenotypic and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed that strain JA738T should be classified as a novel species of the genus Rhodovulum for which the name Rhodovulum bhavnagarense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA738T ( = DSM 24766T = KCTC 15110T).