Two Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, non-sporulating bacteria forming short rods and cocci, designated MB1-7 and MB1-14T, were isolated from the Taklamakan desert. The isolates could oxidize manganese (II) ions. The isolates shared 95.4–98.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with members of the genus Mycetocola . Although the isolates possessed chemotaxonomic properties similar to those of Mycetocola reblochoni , they were readily distinguished from this taxon by DNA–DNA relatedness and phenotypic characters. According to morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA relatedness, the two isolates represent a novel species of the genus Mycetocola , for which the name Mycetocola manganoxydans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MB1-14T ( = CCTCC AB 209002T = KCTC 19753T).
Three actinobacterial strains, CR30T, CR36 and CR38T, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of Pisum sativum plants collected in Spain. The strains were filamentous, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and morphological analyses confirmed that the three strains belonged to the genus Micromonospora . 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strains CR30T and CR36 showed a close relationship to Micromonospora coriariae NAR01T (99.3 % similarity) while strain CR38T had a similarity of 99.0 % with Micromonospora saelicesensis Lupac 09T. In addition, gyrB gene phylogeny clearly differentiated the novel isolates from recognized Micromonospora species. DNA–DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR and ARDRA profiles confirmed that these strains represent novel genomic species. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strains CR30T and CR38T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Both strains had MK-10(H4) as the main menaquinone and a phospholipid type II pattern. An array of physiological tests also differentiated the isolates from their closest neighbours. Considering all the data obtained, it is proposed that strains CR30T and CR36 represent a novel species under the name Micromonospora cremea sp. nov. (type strain CR30T = CECT 7891T = DSM 45599T), whereas CR38T represents a second novel species, for which the name Micromonospora zamorensis sp. nov. is proposed, with CR38T ( = CECT 7892T = DSM 45600T) as the type strain.
The 16S rRNA and gyrB genes of 22 Streptomyces strains belonging to the Streptomyces griseus cluster were sequenced, and their taxonomic positions were re-evaluated. For correct analysis, all of the publicly available sequences of the species were collected and compared with those obtained in this study. Species for which no consensus sequence could be identified were excluded from the phylogenetic analysis. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity within the cluster ranged from 98.6 to 100 % with a mean value of 99.6±0.3 %, and those of the gyrB gene ranged from 93.6 to 99.9 % with a mean value of 96.3±1.5 %. The observed average nucleotide substitution rate of the gyrB gene was ten times higher than that of the 16S rRNA gene, showing a far higher degree of variation. Strains sharing 99.3 % or more gyrB sequence similarity (corresponding to an evolutionary distance of 0.0073) always formed monophyletic groups in both trees. Through the combined analysis of the two genes, clear cases of synonymy could be identified and, according to the priority rule, the assertion of the status of Streptomyces setonii as a distinct species and the reclassification of Streptomyces fimicarius as a later synonym of S. setonii and Streptomyces albovinaceus as a later synonym of Streptomyces globisporus are proposed. Emended descriptions of S. setonii and S. globisporus are provided.
A novel actinomycete, designated strain PT708T, was isolated from cave soil collected in Pha Tup Cave Forest Park, Nan province, Thailand. It produced compounds with antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Its chemotaxonomic properties were consistent with those of members of the genus Nonomuraea . The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4), with minor amounts of MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2), MK-10(H2) and MK-8(H4). The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl C17 : 0, C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω6c. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain PT708T belonged to the genus Nonomuraea and was most closely related to Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092T (98.50 % sequence similarity) and Nonomuraea rosea GW 12687T (98.30 %). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain PT708T was 73.3 mol%. Unlike the recognized members of the genus Nonomuraea , the novel strain formed single spores at the tips of aerial hyphae. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic evidence, strain PT708T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea , for which the name Nonomuraea monospora sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PT708T ( = TISTR 1910T = JCM 16114T).
Four Gram-stain-positive, aerobic bacterial strains isolated from a pharmaceutical clean room (strain WS4616T), a dessert milk product (strain WS4617) and from raw milk (strains WS4623 and WS4624) were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences showed that they formed a distinct lineage within the family Propionibacteriaceae . Similarity values between 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four novel strains and the type species of all genera belonging to the family Propionibacteriaceae were 89.2–94.1 %. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. Respiratory quinones were MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H4). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of type A3γ contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, glycine and glutamic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain WS4616T was 67.7 mol%. The whole-cell sugar pattern contained ribose, mannose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic data, strains WS4616T, WS4617, WS4623 and WS4624 are classified as members of a novel species in a new genus of the family Propionibacteriaceae , for which the name Naumannella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WS4616T ( = DSM 24323T = LMG 26184T) and three additional strains are WS4617, WS4623 and WS4624.