SGP1T, a strain belonging to a lineage of the phylum Synergistetes with no previously cultivated representatives was subjected to a comprehensive range of phenotypic and genotypic tests. For good growth the strain was dependent on co-culture with, or extracts from, selected other oral bacteria. Cells of strain SGP1T were asaccharolytic and major amounts of acetic acid and moderate amounts of propionic acid were produced as end products of metabolism in peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth supplemented with a filtered cell sonicate of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586T (25 %, v/v). Hydrogen sulphide was produced and gelatin was weakly hydrolysed. The major cellular fatty acids were C14 : 0, C18 : 0 and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain SGP1T was 63 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length 16S rRNA gene showed that strain SGP1T represented a novel group within the phylum Synergistetes . A novel species in a new genus, Fretibacterium fastidiosum gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Fretibacterium fastidiosum is SGP1T ( = DSM 25557T = JCM 16858T).
A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium, designated 8KG-4T, was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from salted vegetable production processes. Cells of strain 8KG-4T were non-motile, spherical and 0.7–1.5 µm in diameter (mean, 1.0 µm). Spore formation was not observed under any culture conditions tested. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (range for growth 25–40 °C) and pH 7.0 (range, pH 6.5–7.5), and could grow fermentatively on glucose, ribose, xylose, galactose and sucrose. The main end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. Organic acids, alcohols and amino acids were not utilized for growth. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite and Fe(III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate represented a previously uncultured lineage at the subphylum level within the phylum Lentisphaerae known as ‘WWE2 subgroup I’. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Respiratory quinones were not detected. The most abundant polar lipid of strain 8KG-4T was phosphatidylethanolamine. A novel genus and species, Oligosphaera ethanolica gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain 8KG-4T ( = JCM 17152T = DSM 24202T = CGMCC 1.5160T). In addition, we formally propose Oligosphaeria classis nov. and the subordinate taxa Oligosphaerales order nov. and Oligosphaeraceae fam. nov.
Six obligately anaerobic bacterial isolates (195T, CBDB1, BAV1, VS, FL2 and GT) with strictly organohalide-respiring metabolisms were obtained from chlorinated solvent-contaminated aquifers, contaminated and uncontaminated river sediments or anoxic digester sludge. Cells were non-motile with a disc-shaped morphology, 0.3–1 µm in diameter and 0.1–0.2 µm thick, and characteristic indentations on opposite flat sides of the cell. Growth occurred in completely synthetic, reduced medium amended with a haloorganic electron acceptor (mostly chlorinated but also some brominated compounds), hydrogen as electron donor, acetate as carbon source, and vitamins. No other growth-supporting redox couples were identified. Aqueous hydrogen consumption threshold concentrations were <1 nM. Growth ceased when vitamin B12 was omitted from the medium. Addition of sterile cell-free supernatant of Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment cultures enhanced dechlorination and growth of strains 195 and FL2, suggesting the existence of so-far unidentified stimulants. Dechlorination occurred between pH 6.5 and 8.0 and over a temperature range of 15–35 °C, with an optimum growth temperature between 25 and 30 °C. The major phospholipid fatty acids were 14 : 0 (15.7 mol%), br15 : 0 (6.2 mol%), 16 : 0 (22.7 mol%), 10-methyl 16 : 0 (25.8 mol%) and 18 : 0 (16.6 mol%). Unusual furan fatty acids including 9-(5-pentyl-2-furyl)-nonanoate and 8-(5-hexyl-2-furyl)-octanoate were detected in strains FL2, BAV1 and GT, but not in strains 195T and CBDB1. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the six isolates shared more than 98 % identity, and phylogenetic analysis revealed an affiliation with the phylum Chloroflexi and more than 10 % sequence divergence from other described isolates. The genome sizes and G+C contents ranged from 1.34 to 1.47 Mbp and 47 to 48.9 mol% G+C, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, genome-wide average nucleotide identity and phenotypic characteristics, the organohalide-respiring isolates represent a new genus and species, for which the name Dehalococcoides mccartyi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Isolates BAV1 ( = ATCC BAA-2100 = JCM 16839 = KCTC 5957), FL2 ( = ATCC BAA-2098 = DSM 23585 = JCM 16840 = KCTC 5959), GT ( = ATCC BAA-2099 = JCM 16841 = KCTC 5958), CBDB1, 195T ( = ATCC BAA-2266T = KCTC 15142T) and VS are considered strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, with strain 195T as the type strain. The new class Dehalococcoidia classis nov., order Dehalococcoidales ord. nov. and family Dehalococcoidaceae fam. nov. are described to accommodate the new taxon.