A novel anaerobic, mesophilic, amino-acid-fermenting bacterium, designated strain CL-84T, was isolated from the swine intestinal tract on mucin-based media. Cells were curved rods (0.8–1.2×3.5–5.0 µm), stained Gram-negative and were non-motile with no evidence of spores. Strain CL-84T produced acetate, propionate, formate and butyrate as the end products of metabolism when grown on serine. Optimum growth occurred at 39 °C and pH 6.5. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0, distinguishing strain CL-84T from closely related species. The DNA G+C content of strain CL-84T was 55.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain CL-84T shared 90–95 % similarity with characterized genera within the phylum Synergistetes , family Synergistaceae . Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain CL-84T was related to, but distinct from, Cloacibacillus evryensis . Based on these findings, we propose that strain CL-84T represents a novel species of the genus Cloacibacillus . We further propose the name Cloacibacillus porcorum sp. nov. be designated for this species. The type strain is CL-84T ( = DSM 25858T = CCUG 62631T). An emended description of the genus Cloacibacillus is provided.
The taxonomic properties of strain DC2a-G7T, a Gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped, gellan gum-lysing bacterium, were examined. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that DC2a-G7T is a member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and the closest type strain of a species with a validly published name is Verrucomicrobium spinosum DSM 4136T, with a sequence similarity of 91.2 %. In addition to this similarity value lower than 95 %, the absence of prostheca, the orangey-red colony colour and the compositions of the major menaquinones and polar lipids also supported the differentiation of this bacterium from the genus Verrucomicrobium . Here, we propose the name Roseimicrobium gellanilyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. for the isolate. The type strain of Roseimicrobium gellanilyticum is DC2a-G7T ( = NBRC 108606T = DSM 25532T).
Two helical-shaped bacteria (strains JC133T and JC143), which stain Gram-negative, were isolated from an alkaline soda lake, Lonar, India. Both strains were obligate anaerobes, mesophilic and required halo-alkaline conditions for growth. Both strains were resistant to rifampicin and kanamycin, but sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Both strains had phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphotidylglycerol (DPG), glycolipid (GL) and four unidentified lipids (L1–4) as the major polar lipids. C18 : 1ω7c was the predominant cellular fatty acid with significant proportions of C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C14 : 0, C18 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, C18 : 1ω5c and C20 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C contents of strain JC131T and JC143 were 58.2 and 58.5 mol%, respectively, and the two strains showed DNA reassociation >85 % (based on DNA–DNA hybridization). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains were identified as belonging to the genus Spirochaeta with Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T (99.6 % sequence similarity), Spirochaeta americana ASpG1T (99 %) and other members of the genus Spirochaeta (<93 %) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours. However, strain JC133T and JC143 displayed less than 53.5 % binding (based on DNA–DNA hybridization) with S. alkalica Z-7491T and S. americana ASpG1T. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strains JC133T and JC143 can be differentiated from other members of the genus Spirochaeta and represent a novel species of the genus Spirochaeta , for which the name Spirochaeta sphaeroplastigenens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC133T ( = KCTC 15220T = NBRC 109056T).
Strain LHWP2T, a novel, aerobic, budding, motile and ovoid bacterium belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes , was isolated from a dead ark clam (Scapharca broughtonii) from the south coast of Korea. Strain LHWP2T grew optimally at 30 °C, in the presence of 4 % (w/v) NaCl, and at pH 7. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8) and C18 : 1ω9c. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The dominant polar lipid was identified as phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel strain was most closely related to Blastopirellula marina DSM 3645T, with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.1 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain LHWP2T was 49.5 mol%. Strain LHWP2T was distinguished from B. marina DSM 3645T based on its optimum salinity, acid production from substrates, assimilation of substrates and DNA G+C content. Overall, these phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data suggest that strain LHWP2T should be classified as a novel species belonging to the genus Blastopirellula , for which the name Blastopirellula cremea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LHWP2T ( = KACC 15559T = JCM 17758T).
This work characterizes a unicellular cyanobacterium with nearly spherical cells and thin-outlined sheaths that divide irregularly, forming small packets immersed in a diffluent mucilaginous layer. It was isolated growing on calcite speleothems and walls in a show cave in Collbató (Barcelona, Spain). Spectral confocal laser and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the morphology, fine structure and thylakoid arrangement. The pigments identified were phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a. Three-dimensional reconstructions, generated from natural fluorescence z-stacks, revealed a large surface area of nearly flat, arm-like thylakoidal membranes connected to each other and forming a unified structure in a way that, to our knowledge, has never been described before. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed 95 % similarity to strain Chroococcus sp. JJCM (GenBank accession no. AM710384). The diacritical phenotypic features do not correspond to any species currently described, and the genetic traits support the strain being classified as the first member of an independent genus in the order Chroococcales and the family Chroococcaceae. Hence, we propose the name Chalicogloea cavernicola gen. nov., sp. nov. under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants. The type strain of Chalicogloea cavernicola is COLL 3T ( = CCALA 975T = CCAP 1424/1T).