Two actinomycete strains, BK125T and BK199T, isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA–DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125T ( = KACC 20902T = CGMCC 4.5798T) and BK199T ( = KACC 21003T = CGMCC 4.6824T) as the respective type strains.
A novel actinomycete, strain W6T, was isolated from a soil sample of Yunnan Province, China. The bacterium was aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and Gram-stain-positive. Genetic, phenotypic and chemical properties of the isolate were studied. 16S rRNA gene sequence data suggested that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Friedmanniella and shared 98.6 % sequence similarity with Friedmanniella antarctica DSM 11053T and Friedmanniella okinawensis DSM 21744T, the most closely related species. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, and mycolic acids were absent. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H4) and the predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The phospholipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain W6T was 72 mol%. Strain W6T showed 30.0 % and 28.5 % DNA–DNA relatedness, respectively, to F. antarctica DSM 11053T and F. okinawensis DSM 21744T. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain W6T should be assigned to the genus Friedmanniella as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Friedmanniella flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W6T ( = CGMCC 4.6856T = JCM 17701T).
Strain H5T was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the coastal area of Qingdao, China. The cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, straight or curved rods. The temperature range for growth was 20–37 °C and the pH for growth ranged from 6.5 to 9.0, with optimum growth occurring in the temperature range 28–30 °C and pH range 7.5–8.0. Growth occurred in the presence of 0–6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0–2 %). Strain H5T had MK-9, MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H4) as the major menaquinones and C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0, C14 : 0, C18 : 0 and C16 : 1ω9c as major fatty acids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A5α l-Lys-l-Ala-l-Lys-d-Glu. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), an unknown phospholipid (PL1) and two unknown phosphoglycolipids (PGL1, PGL2). An unknown phospholipid (PL2) and two unknown glycolipids (GL1, GL2) were present in moderate to minor amounts in the polar lipid profile. The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain H5T represents a novel lineage in the family Actinomycetaceae . On the basis of phenotypic, physiological and molecular characteristics, it is proposed that the novel isolate should be classified as a novel species in a new genus: Flaviflexus huanghaiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., with strain H5T ( = DSM 24315T = CICC 10486T) as the type strain of the type species.
A novel actinobacterium strain, 2614A723T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius collected at Touyuan, Wenchang, Hainan province, China. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 2614A723T formed a distinct phyletic line in the genus Actinoallomurus , the 16S rRNA gene tree sharing similarities of 98.35 %, 98.07 % and 97.86 % with Actinoallomurus spadix NBRC 14099T, Actinoallomurus purpureus TTN02-30T and Actinoallomurus luridus TT02-15T , respectively. Strain 2614A723T contained lysine and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan and madurose, galactose and xylose in the whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The major polar phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. These chemotaxonomic data confirmed the affiliation of strain 2614A723T to the genus Actinoallomurus . It is apparent from the combined phenotypic data, biochemical tests and DNA–DNA hybridization values that strain 2614A723T should be classified in the genus Actinoallomurus as a representative of a novel species. The name Actinoallomurus acanthiterrae sp. nov. is proposed with strain 2614A723T ( = CCTCC AA 2012001T = DSM 45727T) as the type strain.
Two novel actinomycetes, strains TA4-1T and TA4-8T, were isolated from the South-East Asian stingless bee (Tetragonilla collina Smith 1857), collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strains TA4-1T and TA4-8T were consistent with the genus Streptomyces , i.e. the formation of aerial mycelia bearing spiral spore chains, the presence of the ll-isomer of diaminopimelic acid in cell walls, iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids with carbon chain lengths 14–17 atoms as the major fatty acids and MK-9(H8) as the predominant menaquinone plus minor amounts of MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H10). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains TA4-1T and TA4-8T exhibited 98.8 and 98.1 % sequence similarity, respectively, with Streptomyces chromofuscus NRRL B-12175T and 98.9 % sequence similarity with each other. This study suggested that strains TA4-1T and TA4-8T were distinct from previously described species of the genus Streptomyces . In addition, the low degrees of DNA–DNA relatedness between the isolates and S. chromofuscus JCM 4354T warranted assigning strains TA4-1T and TA4-8T to two novel species. The names Streptomyces chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (type strain TA4-1T = JCM 16577T = TISTR 1981T) and Streptomyces lannensis sp. nov. (type strain TA4-8T = JCM 16578T = TISTR 1982T) are proposed. The species names indicate the geographical locations where the stingless bees reside.