A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain N1T, was isolated from a marine water sample collected from the sea shore, Bay of Bengal, Visakhapatnam, India. The strain was positive for starch hydrolysis, nitrate reduction and ornithine decarboxylase activities and negative for citrate utilization, urease, oxidase, catalase and DNase activities. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, C15 : 0 3-OH, and C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (summed feature 3). Strain N1T contained menaquinone 6 (MK-6) as the sole respiratory quinone. The only polyamine was homospermidine and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), three unidentified aminolipids (AL1–AL3) and two unidentified lipids (L1, L2). The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain N1T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens with pairwise sequence similarity of 96.5 %. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain N1T clustered with Flavobacterium glycines and Flavobacterium daejeonense with a distance of 4.8 and 6.0 % (95.2 and 94.0 % similarity), respectively. Based on the phenotypic characteristics and on phylogenetic inference, strain N1T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium nitratireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N1T ( = MTCC 11155T = JCM 17678T).
A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic, orange-pigmented bacterial strain, motile by gliding, designated CAU 1044T, was isolated from a green seaweed and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CAU 1044T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Maribacter and was most closely related to Maribacter antarcticus JCM 15445T and Maribacter arcticus KOPRI 20941T (96.3 and 95.7 % similarity, respectively). Strain CAU 1044T contained menaquinone 6 as the only isoprenoid quinone and iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1 G as the major fatty acids. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain CAU 1044T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major whole-cell sugars were glucose and ribose. The polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid, six unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 40.2 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, strain CAU 1044T should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Maribacter for which the name Maribacter chungangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1044T ( = KCTC 23735T = CCUG 61948T). Emended descriptions of the genus Maribacter and the species M. arcticus KCTC 22053T are also proposed.
During diversity studies of the glacier forefields of the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, a novel psychrotolerant, non-motile Gram-negative, shiny yellow, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain PB4T was isolated from a soil sample. Strain PB4T produces indole from tryptophan and hydrolyses casein. It grows between 0 and 25 °C with an optimum growth temperature of 20 °C. A wide range of substrates are used as sole carbon sources and acid is produced from numerous carbohydrates. The major menaquinone is MK-6. Identified polar lipids are ethanolamines and ornithine lipids. Major fatty acids (>10 %) are iso-C15 : 0 (13.0 %) and iso-2OH-C15 : 0 (51.2 %). G+C content is 33.7 mol%. The polyamine pattern is composed of sym-homospermidine (25.1 µmol g−1 dry weight), minor amounts of cadaverine (0.2 µmol g−1 dry weight) and spermidine (0.4 µmol g−1 dry weight) and traces of putrescine and spermine (<0.1 µmol g−1 dry weight). Strain PB4T had highest 16S rRNA gene similarities with the type strains of Chryseobacterium humi (97.0 %) and Chryseobacterium marinum (96.5 %). Considering phenotypic and genotypic characterization, strain PB4T represents a novel species in the genus Chryseobacterium (family Flavobacteriaceae ), for which the name Chryseobacterium frigidisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PB4T ( = DSM 26000T = LMG 27025T).
A novel Gram-stain-negative, heterotrophic, moderate halophilic and strictly aerobic bacterium, strain 105T, was isolated from a tidal flat of Taean in Korea. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive long rods that showed gliding motility. Optimum temperature, pH and salinity for the growth of strain 105T were observed at 30–37 °C, at pH 7.0–7.5, and in the presence of 2–4 % (w/v) NaCl, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Phosphatidylethanolamine and five unidentified lipids were identified as the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 105T was 42.4 mol% and MK-6 was detected as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 105T formed a phyletic lineage with members of the genus Muricauda . Strain 105T was most closely related to Muricauda aquimarina SW-63T (97.6 %), Muricauda beolgyonensis BB-My12T (97.5 %), Muricauda lutimaris SMK-108T (97.5 %), Muricauda ruestringensis B1T (97.3 %), Muricauda flavescens CL-SS4T (97.2 %) and Muricauda olearia (96.2 %). The DNA–DNA relatedness values of strain 105T with M. aquimarina JCM 11811T, M. beolgyonensis KCTC 23501T, M. lutimaris KCTC 22173T, M. ruestringensis DSM 13258T and M. flavescens JCM 11812T were 17.2±6.0, 8.7±2.2, 3.7±0.5, 11.0±1.9 and 7.1±1.3 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular features, strain 105T represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda , for which the name Muricauda taeanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 105T ( = KACC 16195T = JCM 17757T).
A Gram-staining-negative, non-spore-forming, non-gliding and rod-shaped bacterial strain KYW566T, was isolated from seawater of the Suncheon Bay, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic study. The cells contained MK-6 as the only respiratory quinone and contained iso-C15 : 0 (13.8 %), iso-C16 : 0 3-OH (13.1 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (9.3 %), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (8.7 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (6.3 %) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) (6.0 %) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain KYW566T was 41.6±0.8 mol% (mean±sd of three determinations). A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KYW566T forms an evolutionary lineage within the radiation enclosing the members of the genus Lutibacter with Lutibacter flavus IMCC1507T as its nearest neighbour (96.7 % sequence similarity). A number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished strain KYW566T from described members of the genus Lutibacter . On the basis of the evidences presented in this study, strain KYW566T represents a novel species, for which the name Lutibacter agarilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KYW566T ( = KCTC 23842T = JCM 18281T).