Historically, symbiotic protists in termite hindguts have been considered to be the same species if they are morphologically similar, even if they are found in different host species. For example, the first-described hindgut and hypermastigote parabasalian, Trichonympha agilis (Leidy, 1877) has since been documented in six species of Reticulitermes, in addition to the original discovery in Reticulitermes flavipes. Here we revisit one of these, Reticulitermes virginicus, using molecular phylogenetic analysis from single-cell isolates and show that the Trichonympha in R. virginicus is distinct from isolates in the type host and describe this novel species as Trichonympha burlesque i n. sp. We also show the molecular diversity of Trichonympha from the type host R. flavipes is greater than supposed, itself probably representing more than one species. All of this is consistent with recent data suggesting a major underestimate of termite symbiont diversity.
Ambrosiozyma oregonensis sp. nov. is described from two strains, one isolated from a mountain stream in Oregon, USA (NRRL Y-6106T = CBS 5560T), and a second (NRRL YB-4169) from an unknown substrate from Marion, Illinois, USA. The species forms four hat-shaped ascospores in each deliquescent ascus and appears to be homothallic. Abundant true hyphae are produced with some having apparent dolipore-like septa. Analyses of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and subunits B1 and B2 of RNA polymerase II show the proposed novel species to be distinct from other species of the Ambrosiozyma clade. Because of their placement in the Ambrosiozyma clade, Candida kashinagacola, Candida llanquihuensis, Candida maleeae, Candida pseudovanderkliftii and Candida vanderkliftii are reassigned to the genus Ambrosiozyma as new combinations, and the description of the genus Ambrosiozyma is emended to reflect the resulting changes in phenotypic characters.
During the characterization of the mycobiota associated with shallow-water marine environments from Antarctic sea, a novel pink yeast species was isolated. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolated yeast was closely related to Rhodotorula pallida CBS 320T and Rhodotorula benthica CBS 9124T. On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel basidiomycetous yeast species, Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is Pi2T ( = CBS 12733T = CECT 13081T) which was isolated from shallow-water marine sediment in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica.
Two yeast strains isolated from soil crusts in the Shapotou region of Tengger Desert (north-western China) were grouped in the genus Kurtzmanomyces based on morphological characteristics. rRNA gene sequence analyses (including the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer region) indicated that these two strains represented a novel species of the genus Kurtzmanomyces, for which the name Kurtzmanomyces shapotouensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain: CPCC 300020T = DSM 26579T = CBS 12707T). The MycoBank number of the novel species is MB 804959.
A novel yeast species was found repeatedly and in high cell densities in underground-nesting stingless bees of the species Melipona quinquefasciata and their provisions in northern Minas Gerais (Brazil). One additional strain was isolated from bee-collected pollen in Cuba. Phylogenetic analyses based on rRNA gene sequences (D1/D2 large subunit gene and internal transcribed spacer) indicated that the novel species belongs to the Starmerella clade and is most closely related to Candida (iter. nom. Starmerella) apicola. Growth reactions on carbon and nitrogen sources were typical of those observed in related species of the Starmerella clade. PCR-fingerprinting with mini- and microsatellite specific primers allowed the distinction of the novel species from Candida apicola, Candida bombi and a yet undescribed species represented by strain CBS 4353. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships, the novel species is assigned to the genus Starmerella despite the failure to observe sexual reproduction after extensive mating tests. We propose the name Starmerella neotropicalis f. a., sp. nov. (Mycobank MB 804285) and designate UFMG PST 09T ( = MUCL 53320T = CBS 12811T) as the type strain.