A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow–orange-pigmented, motile, short rod-shaped, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative bacterium, strain MYL-8T, was isolated from wastewater of the Jin Tai Chemical Factory in Hefei, China. Strain MYL-8T grew optimally at 30 °C, in the absence of NaCl and at pH 7. Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the sole respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The polar lipid profile was composed predominantly of unidentified polar lipids and aminolipids. Minor amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified phospholipids were also detectable. The DNA G+C content of strain MYL-8T was 43.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MYL-8T showed the highest similarity to that of Fluviicola taffensis RW 262T (97.03 %), followed by Wandonia haliotis Haldis-1-1T (92.05 %), Lishizhenia caseinilytica UST040201-001T (91.43 %) and Lishizhenia tianjinensis JCM 15141T (90.61 %). DNA–DNA relatedness between strain MYL-8T and F. taffensis RW 262T was 21.35±0.90 %. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genomic and phylogenetic data, strain MYL-8T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Fluviicola , for which the name Fluviicola hefeinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MYL-8T ( = KACC 16597T = CCTCC AB 2013168T).
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic and reddish-pigmented strain, designated HME8442T, was isolated from a mesotrophic artificial lake. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7 on R2A agar. The major fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The DNA G+C content was 35.8 mol%. Strain HME8442T was closely related to Ferruginibacter lapsinanis HU1-HG42T (94.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Ferruginibacter alkalilentus HU1-GD23T (93.9 %). The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HME8442T formed a lineage within the genus Ferruginibacter . On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain HME8442T represents a novel species of the genus Ferruginibacter , for which the name Ferruginibacter yonginensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HME8442T ( = KACC 17314T = CECT 8289T).
A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and flexirubin-type-pigmented strain, THG C4-1T, was isolated from green tea leaves in Jangheung-gun, Republic of Korea. Strain THG C4-1T grew well at 20–30 °C, at pH 7.0–7.5 and in the absence of NaCl on nutrient agar. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG C4-1T was most closely related to Chryseobacterium taiwanense Soil-3-27T (97.7 %), C. hagamense RHA2-9T (97.2 %), C. gregarium P 461/12T (97.2 %), C. ginsenosidimutans THG 15T (97.1 %), C. taeanense PHA3-4T (97.0 %) and C. daeguense K105T (97.0 %), but DNA–DNA relatedness between strain THG C4-1T and its closest phylogenetic neighbours was below 21 %. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol%. The only isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG C4-1T was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major component of the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified aminolipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG C4-1T to the genus Chryseobacterium . The results of physiological and biochemical tests enabled strain THG C4-1T to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from recognized species of the genus Chryseobacterium . Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium camelliae sp. nov. is proposed, with THG C4-1T ( = KACC 16985T = JCM 18745T) as the type strain.
The taxonomic position of Sphingobacterium antarcticum has been revised by means of 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA–DNA hybridization, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. All data previously reported, as well as the results of the present phylogenetic analysis, support that Sphingobacterium antarcticum is clearly a member of the genus Pedobacter , also affiliated with the family Sphingobacteriaceae . We propose that Sphingobacterium antarcticum (corrig. Shivaji et al. 1992) should be reclassified as Pedobacter antarcticus comb. nov.
A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain SCSIO N0430T, was isolated from a mangrove sediment sample. Analysis of the sequence of the nifH gene responsible for nitrogen fixation in this strain indicated a close relationship to an uncultured bacterium ZNZ-D11 (GenBank accession no. JF896696). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate had less than 93 % similarity to its closest relative, Sunxiuqinia elliptica DQHS4T. A phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SCSIO N0430T was a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes . Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, including phospholipids and major fatty acids, readily distinguished the isolate from established members of the phylum Bacteroidetes . It is concluded that strain SCSIO N0430T represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Mangrovibacterium diazotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain of the species SCSIO N0430T ( = KCTC 32129T = DSM 27148T = JCM 19152T). Based on phylogenetic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotide patterns, the three genera Sunxiuqinia , Prolixibacter and Mangrovibacterium are proposed to make up a novel family, Prolixibacteraceae fam. nov., in the order Bacteroidales .
A novel Gram-stain-negative, horseshoe-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain KD51T, forming colonies coloured pink by carotenoid pigments, was isolated from aggregates of the alga Chlorella autotrophica collected from the coastal sea off the city of Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that strain KD51T was a member of the genus Cyclobacterium , forming a distinct lineage with Cyclobacterium lianum HY9T. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain KD51T and the type strains of species of the genus Cyclobacterium ranged from 92.1 % to 95.2 %. Growth occurred at 4–40 °C (optimum, 28 °C), in the presence of 3–9 % NaCl (optimum, 3–5 %) and at pH 6–10 (optimum, pH 7.5). The dominant fatty acids (>20 %) of strain KD51T were iso-C15 : 0 (32.2 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 22.2 %). The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol% and the only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, strain KD51T represents a novel species of the genus Cyclobacterium , for which the name Cyclobacterium xiamenense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KD51T ( = CGMCC 1.12432T = KCTC 32253T). An emended description of the genus Cyclobacterium is also proposed.
Two Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated NP180T and NR80, were isolated from water of Nam Co Lake, located in Tibet, China. Growth of strains NP180T and NR80 occurred at 4–25 °C and at pH 6.5–10.0 (optima, 15–20 °C and pH 7.5–8.5). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the phylogenetically closest related strains, Flavobacterium filum EMB 34T, F. ponti GSW-R14T and F. gelidilacus LMG 21477T, was 95.1, 94.8 and 94.6 %, respectively. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0). The major menaquinone of the two strains was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). Phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid were the major polar lipids in both strains. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA were 34.9 and 35.1 mol%, respectively, for strains NP180T and NR80. DNA–DNA relatedness between strains NP180T and NR80 was 99 %, indicating that they belong to the same species. According to phylogenetic inference and phenotypic characteristics, a novel species, Flavobacterium lacus sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NP180T ( = CGMCC 1.12504T = NBRC 109715T). An emended description of Flavobacterium filum is also provided.
A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped and pink bacterium was isolated from the soil of a Populus euphratica forest in the Taklamakan desert, Xinjiang, China. It was designated strain H9XT. A 16S rRNA gene sequence homology search indicated that the isolate was most closely related to the family Cytophagaceae . The 16S rRNA gene of strain H9XT displayed 94.2–96.3 % sequence identities to those of type strains of other species of the genus Pontibacter . It only possessed menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c summed feature 3 (containing C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17 : 1 B and/or iso-C17 : 1 I). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminophospholipid, one unknown glycophospholipid and several unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of this bacterium was 55.2 mol%. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data presented, it can be concluded that this isolate represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacter , for which the name Pontibacter yuliensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H9XT ( = CCTCC AB 2013047T = KCTC 32396T).
A Gram-negative, orange-colony-forming, aerobic and non-flagellated bacterium, designated strain SM1202T, was isolated from marine sediment of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SM1202T was phylogenetically closely related to the genus Polaribacter . It shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Polaribacter dokdonensis (94.2 %) and 92.7–93.9 % sequence similarity with type strains of other known species of the genus Polaribacter . The strain grew at 4–35 °C and with 1.0–5.0 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C13 : 0, C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and C15 : 1ω6c as predominant cellular fatty acids and menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of strain SM1202T were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified lipid, two unidentified aminophospholipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SM1202T was 36.4 mol%. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain SM1202T represents a novel species in the genus Polaribacter of the family Flavobacteriaceae , for which the name Polaribacter huanghezhanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Polaribacter huanghezhanensis is SM1202T ( = CCTCC AB 2013148T = KCTC 32516T). An emended description of the genus Polaribacter is also presented.
A taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach was performed on a Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain PB156T, isolated from grass soil. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that the isolate was clearly affiliated with the phylum Bacteroidetes , and most closely related to Hymenobacter soli PB17T, Hymenobacter antarcticus VUG-A42aaT and Hymenobacter glaciei VUG-A130T, showing 96.4, 96.2 and 95.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, while all other species of the genus shared only 89.3–95.2 % similarity. The main polyamine present was sym-homospermidine. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were C15 : 0 iso, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c/t), C16 : 1ω5c and C15 : 0 anteiso. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB156T was 61.7 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data supported the conclusion that strain PB156T represents a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter , for which the name Hymenobacter ruber sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PB156T ( = KCTC 32477T = JCM 19433T).
Strain JC207T was isolated from a deep (265 m) sea sediment, and appeared as dark yellow colonies on agar plates with cells staining Gram-negative. Catalase, oxidase and caseinase were positive, while chitinase, gelatinase and amylase were negative. Major (>5 %) fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 1G. Strain JC207T contained phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid, with minor amounts of five unidentified lipids. A bacterial hopane derivative, diplopterol and adenosylhopane were the major hopanoids. Genomic DNA G+C content was 47.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain JC207T represented a member of the genus Salinimicrobium within the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes . Strain JC207T had sequence similarity with Salinimicrobium terrae YIM-C338T (98 %), Salinimicrobium xinjiangense BH206T (97.6 %) and other members of the genus Salinimicrobium (<96.8 %). However, strain JC207T showed an average of 23.6±4 and 37±4 relatedness (based on DNA–DNA hybridization) with Salinimicrobium terrae CGMCC 1.6308T ( = YIM-C338T) and Salinimicrobium xinjiangense KCTC 12883T ( = BH206T), respectively. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC207T as a representative of a novel species in the genus Salinimicrobium , for which the name Salinimicrobium sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC207T ( = KCTC 32444T = CGMCC 1.12641T).
A novel Gram-stain-negative, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain GASx41T, was isolated from soil of the coastal–marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GASx41T were curved, ring-like or horseshoe-shaped rods and non-motile. Strain GASx41T was strictly aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 1–10 % (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 2.5–3 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 25–30 °C and pH 7.5–8.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain GASx41T was shown to belong to the genus Cyclobacterium within the phylum Bacteroidetes and showed closest phylogenetic similarity to ‘Cyclobacterium jeungdonense’ HMD3055 (98.0 %). The DNA G+C content of strain GASx41T was 48.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain GASx41T were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), anteiso-C15 : 0 2-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and 12 unknown lipids. The only quinone present was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). All these features confirmed the placement of isolate GASx41T within the genus Cyclobacterium . On the basis of evidence from this study, a novel species of the genus Cyclobacterium , Cyclobacterium halophilum sp. nov., is proposed, with strain GASx41T ( = IBRC-M 10761T = CECT 8341T) as the type strain.
Two strains of bacteria, JC213T and JC215T, were isolated from desert soil. Colonies were red to pink and cells Gram-stain-negative. Both strains were oxidase- and catalase-positive and hydrolysed casein. In both strains, phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid, iso-C15 : 0 was the major fatty acid and the bacteriohopane derivative, BHD1, was the major hopanoid. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains JC213T and JC215T were 52.7 and 46.3 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that both strains belong to the genus Pontibacter within the family Cytophagaceae and the phylum Bacteroidetes . Strain JC213T showed the highest sequence similarity to Pontibacter populi HLY7-15T (96.6 %) and with other species of the genus Pontibacter sequence similarity was less than 96 %. Strain JC215T exhibited highest sequence similarity with Pontibacter lucknowensis DM9T (95.1 %) and shared 95 % or less sequence similarity with other species of the genus Pontibacter . The sequence similarity between strains JC213T and JC215T was 95.8 %. Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support JC213T and JC215T being representatives of two novel species of the genus Pontibacter , for which the names Pontibacter ruber sp. nov. and Pontibacter deserti sp. nov. are proposed and the type strains are JC213T ( = KCTC 32442T = LMG 27669T) and JC215T ( = KCTC 32443T = LMG 27670T), respectively.
A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, motile (by gliding), non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated THG-DT86T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field of Pocheon province in the Republic of Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred at 10–35 °C, at pH 6.5–8.5 and with 0–1.5 % (w/v) NaCl on trypticase soy agar. Flexirubin-type pigments were found to be present. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain THG-DT86T was shown to belong to the genus Taibaiella and was related to Taibaiella smilacinae PTJT-5T (95.3 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 50.1 mol%. The only isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-DT86T was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the only polyamine was homospermidine. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0, and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophosphoglycolipid and an unidentified aminophospholipid. Phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference supported the affiliation of strain THG-DT86T to the genus Taibaiella , and a number of biochemical tests differentiated strain THG-DT86T from the recognized species of the genus Taibaiella . Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Taibaiella koreensis sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-DT86T as the type strain ( = KACC 17171T = JCM 18823T).