A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated UB-B.2T, was isolated from an industrial effluent anaerobic digester sample. It grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that strain UB-B.2T was closely related to Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479T (97.84 % similarity), a member of rRNA gene cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium , and formed a coherent cluster with other related members of the Blautia ( Clostridium ) coccoides rRNA group in phylogenetic analyses. The end products of glucose fermentation by strain UB-B.2T were acetate and propionate. The G+C content of the DNA was 51.4 mol%. Although strain UB-B.2T showed 97.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to the type strain of C. hathewayi , it exhibited only 38.4 % relatedness at the whole-genome level. It also showed differences from its closest phylogenetic relative, C. hathewayi DSM 13479T, in phenotypic characteristics such as hydrolysis of aesculin, starch and urea and fermentation end products. Both strains showed phenotypic differences from the members of rRNA gene cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium . Based on these differences, C. hathewayi DSM 13479T and strain UB-B.2T were identified as representatives of a new genus of the family Clostridiaceae . Thus, we propose the reclassification of Clostridium hathewayi as Hungatella hathewayi gen. nov., comb. nov., the type species of the new genus (type strain DSM 13479T = CCUG 43506T = MTCC 10951T). Strain UB-B.2T ( = MTCC 11101T = DSM 24995T) is assigned to the novel species Hungatella effluvii gen. nov., sp. nov as the type strain.
Three unknown Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic and coccus-shaped strains of bacteria were isolated from the digestive tracts of wasps (Vespula vulgaris). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains had identical sequences and showed that Vagococcus salmoninarum , with 96.2 % sequence similarity, was the closest phylogenetic neighbour. Further analyses based on hsp60 and pheS gene sequences of representatives of the family Enteroccocaceae and genotypic and phenotypic characterization using (GTG)5-PCR fingerprintings, EcoRI ribotyping, DNA G+C content, whole-cell protein profiling, cellular fatty acid profiles analysis and extensive biotyping confirmed that the investigated strains were representatives of a novel bacterial species within the genus Vagoccocus for which the name Vagoccocus entomophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VOSTP2T ( = DSM 24756T = CCM 7946T).
A novel butyrate-producing bacterium, strain 1y-2T, was isolated from a stool sample of a 1-year-old, healthy Dutch infant. The isolate was obtained by using lactate and acetate as sources of carbon and energy. The strain was Gram-variable, strictly anaerobic and spore-forming and formed curly rod-shaped cells that fermented glucose into butyrate, lactate, formate and acetate as main products. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 44.5 mol% and its major cellular fatty acids were C12 : 0, iso-C19 : 1 I and C16 : 0. Strain 1y-2T was related to Anaerostipes caccae DSM 14662T based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 3 % divergence, but hybridization studies of their genomic DNA revealed only 33 % relatedness. Moreover, strain 1y-2T showed marked physiological and biochemical differences from known species of the genus Anaerostipes . Based on phylogenetic, chemotypic and phenotypic criteria, we propose that strain 1y-2T should be classified in the genus Anaerostipes within a novel species, Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans sp. nov. The type strain is 1y-2T ( = DSM 26241T = KCTC 15316T).
A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain ES3-24T, was isolated from a selenium mineral soil. The isolate was endospore-forming, nitrate-reducing and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The major menaquinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the predominant fatty acids (>5 %) were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown aminophospholipids. Strain ES3-24T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. According to phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain ES3-24T was most closely related to Paenibacillus terrigena A35T, with 16S rRNA gene sequence identity of 98.3 %, while the other members of the genus Paenibacillus had 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of less than 95.0 %. DNA–DNA relatedness between strain ES3-24T and P. terrigena CCTCC AB206026T was 39.3 %. In addition, strain ES3-24T showed obvious differences from closely related species in major polar lipids, nitrate reduction and other physiological and biochemical characteristics. The data from our polyphasic taxonomic study reveal that strain ES3-24T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus selenitireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ES3-24T ( = KCTC 33157T = CCTCC AB2013097T).
A Gram-staining-positive, motile, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain CJ32T, was isolated from ginseng soil at Geumsan in Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, 2 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0. Colonies of strain CJ32T were beige and circular with an entire margin on LB agar plates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CJ32T was associated with the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus graminis YC6957T (97.3 % similarity) and Bacillus lentus IAM 12466T (97.1 %). DNA–DNA hybridization with closely related strains was below 31.3 %. The major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipid profile of strain CJ32T consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and several unidentified lipids, including phospholipids, aminolipids and aminophospholipids. The predominant fatty acids of strain CJ32T were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain CJ32T should be classified within a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus panacisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain CJ32T ( = KACC 17503T = JCM 19226T).
A catalase-positive, rod-shaped, non-proteolytic, non-motile, anaerobic bacterial strain, designated B086562T, was isolated from a blood culture of an 84-year-old male patient in Israel. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, this strain has no known close relatives among recognized bacteria but should be placed within the family Lachnospiraceae . The most closely related recognized bacteria were from the ‘ Clostridium clostridioforme group’: C. clostridioforme (92.4 %) and Clostridium bolteae (92.3 %). The isolate produced butyrate, lactate, acetate and succinate as major metabolic end products. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1 cis 9 DMA and the DNA G+C content was 46.0 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the blood isolate represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Lachnospiraceae , for which the name Eisenbergiella tayi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eisenbergiella tayi is B086562T ( = LMG 27400T = DSM 26961T = ATCC BAA-2558T).
A Gram-stain-positive bacterial strain, 11097T, was isolated from traditional pickle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized using a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis, RNA polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA–DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 11097T was phylogenetically related to Enterococcus devriesei , E. pseudoavium , E. viikkiensis , E. avium , E. malodoratus , E. gilvus and E. raffinosus . Strain 11097T had 99.1–99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 78.2–83.2 % pheS gene sequence similarities and 93.8–96.6 % rpoA gene sequence similarities with type strains of phylogenetically related species. Based upon polyphasic characterization data obtained in the present study, a novel species of the genus Enterococcus , Enterococcus xiangfangensis sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain 11097T ( = LMG 27495T = NCIMB 14834T).