A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterial strain, SSK2-1T, was isolated from the zone where the ocean and a freshwater spring meet at Jeju island, South Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain SSK2-1T grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0–8.0 and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SSK2-1T clustered with the type strains of two Octadecabacter species, showing 96.5–96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Strain SSK2-1T and Octadecabacter arcticus DSM 13978T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the common major fatty acid. The polar lipid profile of strain SSK2-1T was similar to that of O. arcticus DSM 13978T by having phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified aminolipid as the major components. The DNA G+C content of strain SSK2-1T was 60.1 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, particularly temperature range for growth, oxidase activity and nitrate reduction, together with phylogenetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain SSK2-1T is separate from recognized species of the genus Octadecabacter . On the basis of the data presented, strain SSK2-1T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Octadecabacter , for which the name Octadecabacter jejudonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SSK2-1T ( = KCTC 32535T = CECT 8397T).
16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of eight strains (BR 3299T, BR 3296, BR 10192, BR 10193, BR 10194, BR 10195, BR 10196 and BR 10197) isolated from nodules of cowpea collected from a semi-arid region of Brazil showed 97 % similarity to sequences of recently described rhizobial species of the genus Microvirga . Phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (gyrB, recA, dnaK and rpoB), DNA–DNA relatedness and AFLP further indicated that these strains belong to a novel species within the genus Microvirga . Our data support the hypothesis that genes related to nitrogen fixation were obtained via horizontal gene transfer, as sequences of nifH genes were very similar to those found in members of the genera Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium , which are not immediate relatives of the genus Microvirga , as shown by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phenotypic traits, such as host range and carbon utilization, differentiate the novel strains from the most closely related species, Microvirga lotononidis , Microvirga zambiensis and Microvirga lupini . Therefore, these symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are proposed to be representatives of a novel species, for which the name Microvirga vignae sp. nov. is suggested. The type strain is BR3299T ( = HAMBI 3457T).
A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterium, designated strain ERB1-3T, was isolated from a laboratory-scale activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent using thiocyanate-supplemented growth medium. Strain ERB1-3T was oxidase-positive and weakly catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c (35.6 %) and C17 : 1ω6c (29.2 %), and the major respiratory quinone was Q-10. Polar lipids were dominated by sphingoglycolipid and phosphatidylglycerol. Major polyamines were spermidine and sym-homospermidine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain ERB1-3T was 66.4 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, strain ERB1-3T exhibited the highest sequence similarity values to Sphingomonas sanxanigenens DSM 19645T (96.1 %), Sphingobium scionense DSM 19371T (95.1 %) and Stakelama pacifica LMG 24686T (94.8 %) within the family Sphingomonadaceae . The novel isolate had some unique chemotaxonomic features that differentiated it from these closely related strains, contained much more C17 : 1ω6c, C15 : 0 2-OH, C17 : 0 and C17 : 1ω8c fatty acids and possessed diphosphatidylglycerol only in trace amounts. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain ERB1-3T is considered to represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Hephaestia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ERB1-3T ( = DSM 25527T = NCAIM B 02511T).
The Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile, with a single polar flagellum, or non-motile (stalked) and rod-shaped bacteria, DS48-5-2T and DS48-6-3, were isolated from a sediment sample collected from a depth of 48 m taken from Daechung Reservoir, Republic of Korea. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that the two isolates had clear affiliation with Alphaproteobacteria and the closest relatedness to Caulobacter mirabilis FWC 38T, Caulobacter fusiformis ATCC 15257T and Caulobacter daechungensis H-E3-2T showing 98.5 %, 97.3 % and 97.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, and 96.1–96.7 % similarity to all other species of the genus Caulobacter . The two isolates shared 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c), C16 : 0, C18 : 0ω7c 11-methyl and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c). The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains DS48-5-2T and DS48-6-3 were 66.7 mol% and 66.2 mol%, respectively. DNA–DNA hybridization values of strains DS48-5-2T and DS48-6-3 with C. mirabilis FWC 38T, C. fusiformis ATCC 15257T and C. daechungensis H-E3-2T were 19.3 %–24.4 %. Thus, based on the evidence from polyphasic studies, it is proposed that strains DS48-5-2T and DS48-6-3 are representatives of a novel species in the genus Caulobacter , for which the name Caulobacter profunda sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS48-5-2T ( = KCTC 32480T = JCM 19440T).
Pectinolytic bacteria have been recently isolated from diseased potato plants exhibiting blackleg and slow wilt symptoms found in a number of European countries and Israel. These Gram-reaction-negative, motile, rods were identified as belonging to the genus Dickeya , previously the Pectobacterium chrysanthemi complex ( Erwinia chrysanthemi ), on the basis of production of a PCR product with the pelADE primers, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl esterase analysis, the production of phosphatases and the ability to produce indole and acids from α-methylglucoside. Differential physiological assays used previously to differentiate between strains of E. chrysanthemi , showed that these isolates belonged to biovar 3. Eight of the isolates, seven from potato and one from hyacinth, were analysed together with 21 reference strains representing all currently recognized taxa within the genus Dickeya . The novel isolates formed a distinct genetic clade in multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using concatenated sequences of the intergenic spacer (IGS), as well as dnaX, recA, dnaN, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, rpoS and gyrA. Characterization by whole-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, pulsed field gel electrophoresis after digestion of whole-genome DNA with rare-cutting restriction enzymes, average nucleotide identity analysis and DNA–DNA hybridization studies, showed that although related to Dickeya dadantii , these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Dickeya , for which the name Dickeya solani sp. nov. (type strain IPO 2222T = LMG25993T = NCPPB4479T) is proposed.
A thallium-tolerant, aerobic bacterium, designated strain SK200a-9T, isolated from a garden soil sample was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SK200a-9T was affiliated with an uncultivated lineage within the Alphaproteobacteria and the nearest cultivated neighbours were bacteria in genera in the family Methylocystaceae (93.3–94.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and the family Beijerinckiaceae (92.3–93.1 %) in the order Rhizobiales . Cells of strain SK200a-9T were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating rods. The strain was a chemo-organotrophic bacterium, which was incapable of growth on C1 substrates. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Atmospheric nitrogen fixation and nitrate reduction were negative. The strain contained ubiquinone Q-10 and cellular fatty acids C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0 as predominant components. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 64.8 mol%. On the basis of the information described above, strain SK200a-9T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the order Rhizobiales , for which the name Alsobacter metallidurans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alsobacter metallidurans is SK200a-9T ( = NBRC 107718T = CGMCC 1.12214T).
Strain S658T was isolated from a Lotus corniculatus nodule in a soil sample obtained in Uruguay. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and atpD gene showed that this strain clustered within the genus Phyllobacterium . The closest related species was, in both cases, Phyllobacterium trifolii PETP02T with 99.8 % sequence similarity in the 16S rRNA gene and 96.1 % in the atpD gene. The 16S rRNA gene contains an insert at the beginning of the sequence that has no similarities with other inserts present in the same gene in described rhizobial species. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the only quinone detected. Strain S658T differed from its closest relatives through its growth in diverse culture conditions and in the assimilation of several carbon sources. It was not able to reproduce nodules in Lotus corniculatus. The results of DNA–DNA hybridization, phenotypic tests and fatty acid analyses confirmed that this strain should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Phyllobacterium , for which the name Phyllobacterium loti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S658T( = LMG 27289T = CECT 8230T).
A bacterium, designated XC21-2T, was isolated from a saline-alkaline soil sample from China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile and grew optimally at 35–37 °C, pH 6.0–7.0 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurred in the range pH 5.5–9.0 and in the presence of up to 4 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an uncharacterized amino-group-containing polar lipid. The major quinone was ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XC21-2T formed a tight phylogenetic lineage with Pseudoxanthomonas dokdonensis KCTC 12543T within the genus Pseudoxanthomonas and was most closely related to P. dokdonensis KCTC 12543T and P. mexicana ATCC 700993T, with 97.9 and 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of the unique physiological profile of the isolate and its phylogenetic divergence from known species, strain XC21-2T represents a novel species within the genus Pseudoxanthomonas , for which the name Pseudoxanthomonas wuyuanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XC21-2T ( = CGMCC 1.10978T = KCTC 23877T).
Strains of a novel alphaproteobacterium were isolated from ultrapure water of a Hungarian power plant on a newly developed medium. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel strains showed that these bacteria belong to a distinct lineage far from any known taxa. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains PI_31, PI_25 and PI_21T exhibited the highest sequence similarity to Bosea minatitlanensis AMX51T (93.43 %) and Bosea thiooxidans DSM 9653T (93.36 %); similarity to all other taxa was less than 93.23 %. Fatty acid profiles, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of cell extracts as well as physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that our strains represent a novel genus and species within the class Alphaproteobacteria . The major isoprenoid quinone of the strains was Q-10, the major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c and the polar lipid profiles of the strains contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and several unknown phospholipids and other lipids. The characteristic diamino acid in their cell wall was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of DNA of the proposed type strain PI_21T was 68.9 mol%. A new genus and species, Phreatobacter oligotrophus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the strains. Strain PI_21T ( = DSM 25521T = NCAIM B 02510T) is the type strain of Phreatobacter oligotrophus.
A bacterial strain, ABC02-12T, was isolated from spent mushroom compost, a waste product of button mushroom cultivation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic flagellated rods. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ABC02-12T shared the highest sequence similarities with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761AT (96.0 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis GT (95.7 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis IAM 12369T (95.4 %) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9T (95.3 %). According to the phylogenetic tree, strain ABC02-12T formed a robust cluster with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761AT and Paenalcaligenes hermetiae KBL009T. The quinone system was ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-7. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C17 : 0 cyclo, and iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and/or an unknown fatty acid (summed feature 2). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminolipid. Putrescine was the principal polyamine, with small amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine and cadaverine. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain ABC02-12T is a representative of a novel species within the genus Paenalcaligenes , for which the name Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ABC02-12T ( = KACC 16537T = NBRC 108927T).
A novel, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain BJGMM-B45T, was isolated from a saline–alkali soil collected from Shandong Province, China. Growth of strain BJGMM-B45T occurred at 10–45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and pH 5.0–12.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) on Luria–Bertani agar medium with 1–20 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 7–10 %). The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, summed feature 3, C12 : 0 3-OH and C12 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BJGMM-B45T belonged to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria . The closest relatives were Halomonas cupida DSM 4740T (98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Halomonas denitrificans M29T (97.8 %). Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain BJGMM-B45T and Halomonas cupida CGMCC 1.2312T and Halomonas denitrificans DSM 18045T were 57.0 and 58.9 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain BJGMM-B45T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halomonas , for which the name Halomonas huangheensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BJGMM-B45T ( = ACCC 05850T = KCTC 32409T).
A neutrophilic, stalk-forming, iron-oxidizing bacterium, strain OYT1T, which was isolated from a groundwater seep in Ohyato Park, Tokyo, Japan, was subjected to taxonomic analysis. OYT1T was a motile, bean-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium that was able to grow at 8–30 °C (optimally at 25–30 °C) and at pH 5.6–7.3 (optimally at pH 6.1–6.5). The strain grew microaerobically and autotrophically. Major cellular fatty acids detected were C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0. The total DNA G+C content was 57.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OYT1T was affiliated with the class Betaproteobacteria and clustered with iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from groundwater seeps and wetlands and with uncultured clones detected in freshwater iron-rich environments. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of strain OYT1T, we propose that the strain represents a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Ferriphaselus amnicola gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of Ferriphaselus amnicola is OYT1T ( = JCM 18545T = DSM 26810T).
Two strains, designated 5413J-26T and KIS18-15T, were isolated from the air and forest soil, respectively, in South Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, polar-flagellated and rod-shaped. According to the phylogenetic tree, strains 5413J-26T and KIS18-15T fell into the cluster of Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Strain 5413J-26T showed the highest sequence similarities with Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142T (96.6 %), Sphingomonas molluscorum KMM 3882T (96.5 %), Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497T (96.3 %) and Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIVT (96.1 %), while strain KIS18-15T had the highest sequence similarity with Sphingomonas soli T5-04T (96.8 %), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIVT (96.6 %), Sphingomonas leidyi ATCC 15260T (96.6 %), Sphingomonas asaccharolytica NBRC 15499T (96.6 %) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26T (96.6 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains 5413J-26T and KIS18-15T was 95.4 %. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant respiratory quinone and homospermidine was the major polyamine. The major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and several unidentified phospholipids and lipids. The main cellular fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) of strain 5413J-26T were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C14 : 0 2-OH, and those of strain KIS18-15T were summed feature 8 and C16 : 0. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and physiological and biochemical characterization, two novel species with the suggested names Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. (type strain 5413J-26T = KACC 16533T = NBRC 108942T) and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov. (type strain KIS18-15T = KACC 16534T = NBRC 108943T) are proposed.
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-shaped bacterial strain, designated HD-22T, belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria , was isolated from a tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea, Korea, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain HD-22T grew optimally at pH 7.0–8.0, at 25 °C and in the presence of 2–3 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HD-22T fell within the clade comprising species of the genus Jannaschia , clustering with the type strains of Jannaschia helgolandensis , Jannaschia donghaensis and Jannaschia rubra , with which it exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.6–98.2 %). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain HD-22T and the type strains of the other species of the genus Jannaschia were in the range 94.4–97.5 %. The DNA G+C content was 64.6 mol% and mean DNA–DNA relatedness values between strain HD-22T and the type strains of J. helgolandensis , J. donghaensis and J. rubra were 42.1, 40.1 and 27.0 %, respectively. Strain HD-22T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Differential phenotypic properties, together with phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain HD-22T is distinguishable from recognized species of the genus Jannaschia . On the basis of the data presented, strain HD-22T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Jannaschia , for which the name Jannaschia faecimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HD-22T ( = KCTC 32179T = CCUG 63415T).
Two strains (JA746T and JA756T) having yellowish brown-to-green pigment were isolated from a solar saltern and a pink pond, respectively. While both strains were non-motile and shared the presence of bacteriochlorophyll-a, major cellular fatty acids (C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 0), quinone (Q-10), polar lipids and hopanoids, they differed from each other in their carotenoid composition. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strains JA746T and 756T was 62.4 and 63.3 mol%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene-based EzTaxon-e blast search analysis of strains JA746T and 756T indicated highest sequence similarity with members of the genus Rhodovulum in the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria . Strain JA746T has high sequence similarities with Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense JA181T (97.3 %), Rhodovulum steppense A-20sT (97.3 %), Rhodovulum phaeolacus JA580T (97 %), Rhodovulum strictum MB-G2T (97 %) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum (<97 %). Strain JA756T has high sequence similarities with Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense JA181T (99.8 %), Rhodovulum sulfidophilum Hansen W4T (99.1 %), Rhodovulum kholense JA297T (97.9 %) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum (<97 %). The sequence similarity between strains JA746T and JA756T was 97.5 %. However, these strains are not closely related to each other or to their phylogenetic neighbours since the DNA–DNA reassociation values were less than 56 %. The genomic information was also supported by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic results, leading us to classify strains JA746T ( = NBRC 108898T = KCTC 15180T) and JA756T ( = NBRC 109122T = KCTC 15223T) as the type strains of two novel species of the genus Rhodovulum , for which the names Rhodovulum salis sp. nov. and Rhodovulum viride sp. nov. are proposed, respectively.
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain GCS-AN-3T, which was isolated from a phenol-degrading consortium enriched from coking wastewater activated sludge of Beijing Shougang Company Limited during the screening of phenol-degrading bacteria. Cells of strain GCS-AN-3T were Gram-stain-negative, short rods, and oxidase-/catalase-positive. Growth was observed at salinities from 0 to 2.5 % and at temperatures from 10 to 37 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain GCS-AN-3T was most closely related to Ottowia pentelensis DSM 21699T (96.2 %). The principal fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c) and cyclo C17 : 0. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.6 mol%. Thiosulfate could be utilized as co-substrate for aerobic growth and was oxidized to sulfate. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain GCS-AN-3T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Ottowia , for which the name Ottowia beijingensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain GCS-AN-3T = LMG 27179T = CGMCC 1.12324T = MCCC 1A01410T). An emended description of the genus Ottowia is also proposed.
A novel methane-oxidizing bacterium, strain IT-9T, was isolated from a shallow submarine hydrothermal system occurring in a coral reef in Japan. Strain IT-9T was a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, coccoid or oval-shaped bacterium with the distinctive intracytoplasmic membrane arrangement of a type I methanotroph. Strain IT-9T was a moderately thermophilic, obligate methanotroph that grew on methane and methanol at 30–55 °C (optimum 45–50 °C). The strain possessed the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). The ribulose monophosphate pathway was operative for carbon assimilation. NaCl was required for growth within a concentration range of 1–5 % (optimum 3 %). The hao gene encoding hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) involved in nitrification was detected by a PCR experiment. The major phospholipid fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 66.0 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain IT-9T was only moderately related to the sequences of members of the closest genera Methylohalobius (94.1 % similarity) and Methylothermus (91.7–91.9 % similarity); however, those sequences formed a deeply branching monophyletic group within the order Methylococcales . Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, deduced partial PmoA sequences and deduced partial Hao sequences and physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics revealed that strain IT-9T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Methylomarinovum caldicuralii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Methylomarinovum caldicuralii is IT-9T ( = JCM 13666T = DSM 19749T). In addition, we propose a new family, Methylothermaceae fam. nov., in the order Methylococcales , to accommodate the genera Methylothermus , Methylohalobius and Methylomarinovum. The genera Methylothermus and Methylohalobius have been recognized as being distinct from other genera in the methane-oxidizing order Methylococcales in the class Gammaproteobacteria . These genera form a distinctive monophyletic lineage within the order on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny. This seems consistent with their distinctive physiological traits; the genus Methylothermus includes the most thermophilic species, and the genus Methylohalobius includes the most halophilic species, within the order. Although these two genera include only three species at the time of writing, similar sequences of 16S rRNA genes and pmoA genes encoding pMMO have been detected in a geothermal area or deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields by studies using culture-independent techniques. This suggests that unknown methanotrophs of this lineage inhabit various extreme environments.
A bacterial strain, designated 5N26T, was isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Cells of this strain were Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods, and catalase- and urease-negative. The major fatty acids of strain 5N26T were C16 : 0 (7.5 %), C18 : 1 2-OH (13.4 %) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c; 63.2 %). The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 5N26T was 68.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5N26T was phylogenetically related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33T and Roseomonas terrae DS-48T (97.0 % and 96.6 % sequence similarity, respectively). The results of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain 5N26T could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that this strain represented a novel species within the genus Roseomonas , for which the name Roseomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain 5N26T = KACC 16376T = NBRC 109097T) is proposed.
A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from purplish soils collected from Yanting (Sichuan, south-western China). Cells of strain 1007T were Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped, motile and yellow-pigmented. The isolate was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 28-30 °C and pH 6.0-7.0. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 1007T was 67±0.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1007T belonged to the genus Sphingomonas and was most closely related to Sphingomonas pruni IFO 15498T (97.3 %), Sphingomonas mali IFO 15500T (97.2 %), Sphingomonas japonica KC7T (97.2 %) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26T (97.0 %). This affiliation of strain 1007T to the genus Sphingomonas was confirmed by the presence of Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, sphingoglycolipid, C14 : 0 2-OH and by the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids. The major polyamine was homospermidine. The main cellular fatty acids included summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. Based on the low level of DNA–DNA relatedness (ranging from 26.1 % to 58.7 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Sphingomonas and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain 1007T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas , for which the name Sphingomonas yantingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1007T ( = DSM 27244T = JCM 19201T = CCTCC AB 2013146T).
A bacterial strain designated CMJ-9T was isolated from a freshwater shrimp culture pond in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain CMJ-9T were strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, motile by a single polar flagellum, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-containing and formed light-yellow colonies. Growth occurred at 10–37 °C (optimum, 20–30 °C), with 0–0.8 % NaCl (optimum, 0–0.1 %) and at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0–7.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CMJ-9T belonged to the genus Undibacterium , and its closest neighbour was Undibacterium seohonense SHS5-24T, with 96.7 % sequence similarity. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. The major cellular hydroxy fatty acid was C10 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The polyamine profile was composed of the major compound putrescine and moderate amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, strain CMJ-9T should be classified within a novel species, for which the name Undibacterium macrobrachii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CMJ-9T ( = BCRC 80406T = LMG 26891T = KCTC 23916T).
Two Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, 2BJ1T and 2C-3-1, were isolated from canker bark of Populus × euramericana collected from different locations in Puyang City, Henan Province, China. The two strains were characterized using nutritional and physiological testing and DNA sequence analysis. They were found to produce acid from d-glucose. Haemolysis was not observed on agar medium supplemented with sheep erythrocytes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrB gene sequences revealed that the strains formed a distinct cluster with 100 % bootstrap support within the genus Acinetobacter in all phylogenetic trees. The phenotypic characteristics most useful for the differentiation of the two strains from other species of the genus Acinetobacter were their ability to grow at 41 °C and to assimilate malonate, phenylacetate and trigonelline. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter , for which the name Acinetobacter qingfengensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2BJ1T ( = CFCC 10890T = KCTC 32225T).