A Gram-stain-positive, short rod-shaped and motile, mildly halotolerant, endospore-forming bacterium, FJAT-13985T, was isolated from the internal tissues of Mesona chinensis root. Strain FJAT-13985T grew at 20–45 °C (optimum 30 °C) and pH 5.7–9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0–2 % (w/v) NaCl [optimum 1 % (w/v)]. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The cell wall of strain FJAT-13985T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 (97.4 %). The major fatty acids of the strain were anteiso-C15 : 0 (23.3 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (40.8 %). The DNA G+C content was 41.64 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain FJAT-13985T is a member of the genus Bacillus and is most closely related to Bacillus drentensis DSM 15600T (98.4 %), Bacillus vireti DSM 15602T (98.2 %) and Bacillus novalis DSM 15603T (98.3 %). DNA–DNA hybridization indicated that relatedness between strain FJAT-13985T and its closest relative, B. drentensis DSM 15600T, was 36.63 %. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicate that strain FJAT-13985T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus mesonae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-13985T ( = DSM 25968T = CGMCC1.12238T).
Three novel moderately anaerobic, thermophilic, rod-shaped bacterial strains, KY38T, KY46T and KA13T, were isolated from shellfish collected on the Pacific coastline of Enoshima, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these bacteria belong to the genus Symbiobacterium , sharing sequence similarities of 97.8 % (KY38T), 96.4 % (KY46T) and 93.3 % (KA13T) with the type strain of Symbiobacterium thermophilum , the only species of the genus with a validly published name. These isolates reduced nitrate and grew optimally at 55–60 °C. Strains KY38T and KA13T formed endospore-like structures in the terminal or subterminal part of their cells at low frequencies. Genomic DNA G+C contents were 68.8 (KY38T), 67.2 (KY46T) and 67.1 (KA13T) mol%. The isolates all presented the predominant menaquinone MK-6, major fatty acids iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 and the major polar lipids phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown glycol-containing phospholipids. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and phylogenetic properties, strains KY38T, KY46T and KA13T represent three novel species, for which the names Symbiobacterium ostreiconchae sp. nov. (type strain KY38T = DSM 27624T = KCTC 4567T = JCM 15048T), Symbiobacterium turbinis sp. nov. (type strain KY46T = DSM 27625T = KCTC 4568T = JCM 15996T) and Symbiobacterium terraclitae sp. nov. (type strain KA13T = DSM 27138T = KCTC 4569T = JCM 15997T) are proposed. An emended description of the genus Symbiobacterium is also presented. The phylogenetic distinctiveness of the genus Symbiobacterium indicates its affiliation with a novel family, for which the name Symbiobacteriaceae fam. nov. is proposed.
Ten isolates of unknown, Gram-stain-negative, anaerobic cocci were recovered from human clinical samples, mainly from semen. On the basis of their phenotypic features, including morphology, main metabolic end products, gas production, nitrate reduction and decarboxylation of succinate, the strains were identified as members of the genus Veillonella. Multi-locus sequence analysis and corresponding phylogenies were based on 16S rRNA, dnaK and rpoB genes, and on the newly proposed gltA gene. The strains shared high levels of genetic sequence similarity and were related most closely to Veillonella ratti . The strains could not be differentiated from V. ratti on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis while gltA, rpoB and dnaK gene sequences showed 85.1, 93.5 and 90.2 % similarity with those of the type strain of V. ratti , respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolates formed a robust clade in the V. ratti – Veillonella criceti – Veillonella magna subgroup of the genus Veillonella . As observed for V. criceti , the isolates were able to ferment fructose. In contrast to other members of the genus Veillonella , the 10 strains were not able to metabolize lactate. Cellular fatty acid composition was consistent with that of other species of the genus Veillonella . From these data, the 10 isolates are considered to belong to a novel species in the genus Veillonella , for which the name Veillonella seminalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ADV 4313.2T ( = CIP 107810T = LMG 28162T). Veillonella strain ACS-216-V-Col6b subjected to whole genome sequencing as part as the Human Microbiome Project is another representative of V. seminalis sp. nov. An emended description of the genus Veillonella is also proposed.
A species of a previously unknown Gram-positive-staining, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacterium recovered from a swine manure storage tank was characterized using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular taxonomic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies and biochemical characteristics demonstrated that this organism is genotypically and phenotypically distinct, and represents a previously unknown sub-line within the order Clostridiales , within the phylum Firmicutes . Pairwise sequence analysis demonstrated that the novel organism clustered within the genus Peptoniphilus , most closely related to Peptoniphilus methioninivorax sharing a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.5 %. The major long-chain fatty acids were found to be C14 : 0 (22.4 %), C16 : 0 (15.6 %), C16 : 1ω7c (11.3 %) and C16 : 0 ALDE (10.1 %) and the DNA G +C content was 31.8 mol%. Based upon the phenotypic and phylogenetic findings presented, a novel species Peptoniphilus stercorisuis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SF-S1T ( = DSM 27563T = NBRC 109839T). In addition, it is proposed to accommodate the genera Peptoniphilus , Anaerococcus , Anaerosphaera , Finegoldia , Gallicola , Helcococcus , Murdochiella and Parvimonas in a new family of the order Clostridiales , for which the name Peptoniphilaceae fam. nov. is proposed; the type genus of the family is Peptoniphilus .
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain, WK011T, was isolated from a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms. The cells stained Gram-negative and were curved rods with a polar or subpolar flagellum. Spore formation was not observed. The optimum temperature for growth was 35 °C and the optimum pH was 6.7. Tests for oxidase, catalase and nitrate-reduction activities were negative. Hydrogen sulfide was produced. The strain fermented carbohydrates and produced acetate and propionate as major fermentation products. The genomic DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1 dimethylacetal. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The most closely related species to strain WK011T on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences were Propionispira arboris and Zymophilus raffinosivorans (95.6 % sequence similarity to the type strains of both species). It was shown by phylogenetic and phenotypic examination of the type strains of related species, including the second species of the genus Zymophilus , Zymophilus paucivorans , that the two genera should be combined and that the two species of the genus Zymophilus should be transferred to the genus Propionispira, as Propionispira raffinosivorans comb. nov. (type strain SH2T = ATCC 49691T = DSM 20765T) and Propionispira paucivorans comb. nov. (type strain AA1T = ATCC 49689T = DSM 20756T), with an emended description of the genus Propionispira . Based on differences in the phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of strain WK011T from those of closely related species, the novel species Propionispira arcuata sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the strain. The type strain is WK011T ( = JCM 16475T = DSM 22929T).