Diversity of the anaerobic Heterolobosea (Excavata: Discoba) is only poorly understood, especially in marine environments. We have isolated and cultured 16 strains of anaerobic heteroloboseid amoebae and flagellates from brackish, marine and saline anoxic habitats worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences and light-microscopic observations showed that all the strains belong to the family Psalteriomonadidae, the main anaerobic lineage of Heterolobosea, and that they represent eight species from the genera Monopylocystis, Harpagon and Pseudoharpagon. Seven species are newly isolated and described here as Monopylocystis minor n. sp., Monopylocystis robusta n. sp., Monopylocystis elegans n. sp., Monopylocystis disparata n. sp., Harpagon salinus n. sp., Pseudoharpagon longus n. sp. and Pseudoharpagon tertius n. sp. Amoebae, cysts and the ultrastructure of the genus Pseudoharpagon are presented for the first time.
Seven apiculate yeast strains that were isolated from the flowers of Syphocampylus corymbiferus Pohl in Brazil are genetically, morphologically and phenotypically distinct from recognized species of the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera. Genetic discontinuities between the novel strains and their closest relatives were found using a networking approach based on the concatenated sequences of the rRNA gene (internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 of the LSU), and the protein-coding genes for actin and translation elongation factor-1α. Phylogenetic analysis based on the rRNA and the actin gene placed the novel species represented by the strains in close relationship to Hanseniaspora meyeri and Hanseniaspora clermontiae. PCR fingerprinting with microsatellite primers confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of the novel species. The name Hanseniaspora nectarophila sp. nov. is proposed, with UFMG POG a.1T ( = ZIM 2311T = CBS 13383T) as the type strain; MycoBank no. MB807210. As the current description of the genus does not allow the presence of multilateral budding, an emended diagnosis of the genus Hanseniaspora Zikes is proposed.
The morphology and infraciliature of two soil ciliates, Parafurgasonia zhangi spec. nov. and Chilodonella acuta Kahl, 1931, collected from Saudi Arabia, were investigated by observations of both living cells and specimens after standard staining methods. P. zhangi differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: excretory pore quite near posterior end of paroral membrane, 16 or 17 somatic kineties with about 11 kinetids in each one on dorsal side, paroral membrane gently curved and composed of about 15 dikinetids, and hypostomial organelle composed of four or five files of kinetids with four monokinetids each. The diagnosis of Chilodonella acuta was renewed to include characteristics revealed by the silver impregnation method: cells in vivo measuring 33–45×18–26 µm, dorsal hump and tail-like podite present, two contractile vacuoles, seven left and five right kineties, 9–11 nematodesmal rods, and dorsal brush containing about 11 basal bodies. Phylogenetic analyses based on small-subunit rRNA gene sequences showed that P. zhangi was closer to species of the Colpodidiidae rather than the Furgasoniidae represented by Furgasonia blochmanni, and Chilodonella acuta clustered with its congener Chilodonella uncinata but was a well-outlined species of the genus.