A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20T, was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m−2) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans . Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus . Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10T (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82T (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1aT (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27T (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12T (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314T (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539T (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20T was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20T represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus , for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20T ( = DSM 27864T = CCTCC AB 2013263T).
Three strains of facultatively aerobic, moderately thermophilic bacteria were isolated from terrestrial hot springs in Baikal Lake region and Kamchatka (Russia). Cells of the new isolates were cocci reproducing by binary fission. The temperature range for growth was between 20 and 56 °C and the pH range for growth from pH 4.5 to 8.5, with optimal growth at 47–50 °C and pH 7.0–7.5. The organisms were chemoheterotrophs preferring sugars and polysaccharides as growth substrates. 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains 2842, 2813 and 2918Kr were nearly identical (99.7–100 % similarity) and indicated that the strains belonged to the phylum Planctomycetes . The phylogenetically closest cultivated relatives were Algisphaera agarilytica 06SJR6-2T and Phycisphaera mikurensis FYK2301M01T with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 82.4 and 80.3 %, respectively. The novel strains differed from them by higher growth temperature, sensitivity to NaCl concentration above 3.0 % and by their cellular fatty acids profile. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological data, strains 2842T, 2813 and 2918Kr represent a novel genus and species for which we propose the name Tepidisphaera mucosa sp. nov. The type strain is 2842T ( = VKM B-2832T = JCM 19875T). We also propose that Tepidisphaera gen. nov. is the type genus of a novel family, Tepidisphaeraceae fam. nov. and a novel order, Tepidisphaerales ord. nov.
A new Gram-staining-positive, non-sporulating, mesophilic, amino acid-degrading anaerobic bacterium, designated strain OTA 102T, was isolated from an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating wastewater from cooking tuna. The cells were curved rods (0.6–2.5×0.5 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. The strain was motile by means of one lateral flagellum. Strain OTA 102T grew at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C (optimum 40 °C), between pH 6.0 and 8.4 (optimum pH 7.2) and NaCl concentrations between 1 and 5 % (optimum 2 %, w/v). Strain OTA 102T required yeast extract for growth. Serine, threonine, glycine, cysteine, citrate, fumarate, α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate were fermented. When co-cultured with Methanobacterium formicicum as the hydrogen scavenger, strain OTA 102T oxidized alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate, tyrosine, methionine, histidine and asparagine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain OTA 102T was 41.7 mol%. The main fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain OTA 102T was related to Aminobacterium colombiense and Aminobacterium mobile (95.5 and 95.2 % similarity, respectively), of the phylum Synergistetes . On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic and physiological characteristics, strain OTA 102T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Aminobacterium , Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov. The type strain is OTA 102T ( = DSM 27500T = JCM 19320T).
Nostoc is a common and well-studied genus of cyanobacteria and, according to molecular phylogeny, is a polyphyletic group. Therefore, revisions of this genus are urged in an attempt to clarify its taxonomy. Novel strains isolated from underexplored environments and assigned morphologically to the genus Nostoc are not genetically related to the ‘true Nostoc’ group. In this study, four strains isolated from biofilms collected in Antarctica and five strains originated from Brazilian mangroves were evaluated. Despite their morphological similarities to other morphotypes of Nostoc , these nine strains differed from other morphotypes in ecological, physiological and genetic aspects. Based on the phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene, the Antarctic sequences were grouped together with the sequences of the Brazilian mangrove isolates and Nostoc sp. Mollenhauer 1 : 1-067 in a well-supported cluster (74 % bootstrap value, maximum-likelihood). This novel cluster was separated phylogenetically from the ‘true Nostoc’ clade and from the clades of the morphologically similar genera Mojavia and Desmonostoc. The 16S rRNA gene sequences generated in this study exhibited 96 % similarity to sequences from the nostocacean genera mentioned above. Physiologically, these nine strains showed the capacity to grow in a salinity range of 1–10 % NaCl, indicating their tolerance of saline conditions. These results provide support for the description of a new genus, named Halotia gen. nov., which is related morphologically to the genera Nostoc , Mojavia and Desmonostoc. Within this new genus, three novel species were recognized and described based on morphology and internal transcribed spacer secondary structures: Halotia branconii sp. nov., Halotia longispora sp. nov. and Halotia wernerae sp. nov., under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants.