A Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain EMB111T, was isolated from activated sludge performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor. Cells were long and rod-shaped. The isolate was strictly aerobic and non-motile. The strain grew optimally at 25–30 °C and pH 7.5–8.0. The predominant fatty acids of strain EMB111T were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1 ω5c, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The strain contained a large amount of phosphatidylglycerol and small amounts of two unknown phospholipids (PL1, PL2) as the polar lipids. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain EMB111T formed a phyletic cluster with members of the genus Runella within the family Flexibacteraceae and was most closely related to Runella slithyformis ATCC 29530T with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.8 %. On the basis of chemotaxonomic data and molecular properties, strain EMB111T represents a novel species within the genus Runella, for which the name Runella limosa sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EMB111T (=KCTC 12615T=DSM 17973T).
Four aerobic, heterotrophic, yellow-pigmented and flexirubin-producing bacterial strains with gliding motility were isolated from acidic Sphagnum-dominated wetlands of Northern Russia. These bacteria are capable of degrading xylan, laminarin and some other polysaccharides, but not cellulose, pectin or chitin. The four strains possess almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and are most closely related (98.9–99.5 % sequence similarity) to the recently reclassified species of the phylum Bacteroidetes, Chitinophaga arvensicola Kämpfer et al. 2006 , formerly known as [Cytophaga] arvensicola Oyaizu et al. 1983 . However, the novel isolates from Sphagnum peat differed from C. arvensicola DSM 3695T in their ability to degrade xylan and starch, by greater tolerance of acidic pH and by their inability to reduce nitrate. An emended description of this species is proposed.
Three Gram-negative, non-spore-forming strains were isolated from sediment from the South China Sea, China, and their taxonomic positions were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strains HN-171T, HN-172 and HN-181 grew optimally at 30 °C, in the presence of 4.5–5.0 NaCl % (w/v) and at pH 7.2–7.4. They contained MK-6 as the predominant respiratory quinone and contained iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c/t) and C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain HN-171T was 34.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain HN-171T, together with strains HN-172 and HN-181, formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains HN-171T, HN-172 and HN-181 shared 99.8–100 % similarity with each other, and the sequence of strain HN-171T exhibited similarity values below 90.2 % with those of other members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The closest relative of HN-171T was Coenonia anatina LMG 14382T (90.2 %). On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, the three isolates represent a novel genus and a novel species, for which the name Zhouia amylolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HN-171T (=CGMCC 1.6114T=JCM 14016T).
Eight bacterial strains isolated from the caecum of chicken, BL2T, BL66, EG3, EG6, M27, BL78T, C35T and C43, were characterized by determining their phenotypic characteristics, cellular fatty acid profiles, menaquinone profiles and phylogenetic positions based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these isolates belonged to the genus Bacteroides. One group of five strains (BL2T, BL66, EG3, EG6 and M27) was related most closely to Bacteroides coprocola JCM 12979T, with approximately 93 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and to Bacteroides plebeius JCM 12973T, with about 92 % similarity, and shared ⩾99.6 % similarity with each other. Strain BL78T exhibited 90.5 % similarity to B. plebeius JCM 12973T and 89.8 % similarity to B. coprocola JCM 12979T and differed from the above group of five strains at ⩾10 % sequence divergence. Strains C35T and C43 were related most closely to Bacteroides eggerthii JCM 12986T, with 95.1 % sequence similarity, to Bacteroides stercoris JCM 9496T, with 94.6 % similarity, and to Bacteroides uniformis JCM 5828T, with 94.4 % similarity, and shared 100 % similarity with each other. From results of phenotypic examination, cellular fatty acid composition analysis, menaquinone composition analysis and DNA G+C contents, the group of five strains as well as strain BL78T were shown to differ from the type strains of B. coprocola and B. plebeius. Strain BL78T differed from the others based on its menaquinone composition, which included MK-11 and MK-12. Strains C35T and C43 could also be differentiated from the type strains of B. eggerthii, B. stercoris and B. uniformis. The group of five strains, strain BL78T, B. coprocola JCM 12979T and B. plebeius JCM 12973T showed low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness (<35 %) with each other. High levels of DNA–DNA relatedness were obtained within the group of five strains (>75 %). Strains C35T and C43 exhibited a high level of DNA–DNA relatedness (>88 %) with each other, but low levels with B. eggerthii JCM 12986T (<40 %), B. stercoris JCM 9496T (<37 %) and B. uniformis JCM 5828T (<16 %). On the basis of these data, three novel Bacteroides species are proposed: Bacteroides barnesiae sp. nov. (type strain BL2T=JCM 13652T=DSM 18169T), Bacteroides salanitronis sp. nov. (type strain BL78T=JCM 13657T=DSM 18170T) and Bacteroides gallinarum sp. nov. (type strain C35T=JCM 13658T=DSM 18171T).
A novel alkaliphilic and psychrophilic bacterium was isolated from the cold and alkaline ikaite tufa columns of the Ikka Fjord in south-west Greenland. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain GCM71T belonged to the family ‘Flexibacteraceae’ in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain GCM71T, together with five related isolates from ikaite columns, formed a separate cluster with 86–93 % gene sequence similarity to their closest relative, Belliella baltica. The G+C content of the DNA from strain GCM71T was 43.1 mol%, whereas that of B. baltica was reported to be 35 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization between strain GCM71T and B. baltica was 9.5 %. The strain was red pigmented, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic with non-motile, rod-shaped cells. The optimal growth conditions for strain GCM71T were pH 9.2–10.0, 5 °C and 0.6 % NaCl. The fatty acid profile of the novel strain was dominated by branched and unsaturated fatty acids (90–97 %), with a high abundance of iso-C17 : 1 ω9c (17.5 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (17.5 %) and summed feature 3, comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c (12.6 %). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics showed that the novel strain could not be affiliated to any known genus. A new genus, Rhodonellum gen. nov., is proposed to accommodate the novel strain. Strain GCM71T (=DSM 17998T=LMG 23454T) is proposed as the type strain of the type species, Rhodonellum psychrophilum sp. nov.
A novel psychrophilic, yellow-pigmented and obligate aerobic bacterium, strain 0499T, was isolated from the China No.1 glacier. Strain 0499T displayed the common phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features of the genus Flavobacterium, containing menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the major quinone and C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C17 : 1 ω6c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) as the major fatty acids. Optimal growth occurred at 21 °C. The genomic DNA G+C content was 36.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain 0499T was related to members of the genus Flavobacterium, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Flavobacterium succinicans (97.9 %), Flavobacterium granuli (97.4 %) and Flavobacterium hydatis (97.2 %). On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA relatedness data, a novel species Flavobacterium glaciei is proposed with strain 0499T (=CGMCC 1.5380T=JCM 13953T) as the type strain.
The marine bacterial strain HY9T was isolated from sediment from the South China Sea. Strain HY9T is aerobic, heterotrophic and rose-pigmented. The cells are non-motile and curved, i.e. ring-like or horseshoe-shaped. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain HY9T was determined and blast searches revealed that it possessed significant sequence similarities with respect to Cyclobacterium species (92.8–93.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that strain HY9T was tightly clustered with members of the genus Cyclobacterium. The cellular morphology and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic properties of strain HY9T showed that it should be classified as a member of the genus Cyclobacterium. Significant evolutionary distances and a range of phenotypic features distinguished strain HY9T from previously described Cyclobacterium species. Hence, strain HY9T represents a novel species in the genus Cyclobacterium, for which the name Cyclobacterium lianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HY9T (=CGMCC 1.6102T=JCM 14011T). On the basis of this study and previously described properties of Cyclobacterium species, an emended description of the genus Cyclobacterium is proposed.
Three strains of gliding bacteria, 24T, 62 and 71, isolated from a marine sponge and algae from the southern coastline of Thailand, were studied using a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic positions. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three isolates formed a distinct lineage within the family ‘Saprospiraceae’ of the phylum Bacteroidetes and were related to members of the genus Saprospira. The G+C contents of the isolates were in the range 38–39 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant cellular fatty acids were 20 : 4ω6c (arachidonic acid), 16 : 0 and iso-17 : 0. On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA–DNA hybridization data and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates represent a novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Aureispira marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aureispira marina is 24T (=IAM 15389T=TISTR 1719T).