A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, DS-57T, was isolated from soil from Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. It grew optimally at 25 °C and in trypticase soy broth without NaCl and trypticase soy broth with 0.5 % NaCl. Strain DS-57T contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DS-57T was most closely related to the genus Pedobacter of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, clustering coherently with Pedobacter suwonensis, Pedobacter roseus and Pedobacter sandarakinus. Strain DS-57T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 99.2, 97.9 and 97.2 % with respect to the type strains of P. suwonensis, P. roseus and P. sandarakinus, respectively, and values less than 95.6 % with respect to the type strains of other Pedobacter species. Strain DS-57T exhibited levels of DNA–DNA relatedness of 45, 17 and 15 % with respect to the type strains of P. suwonensis, P. roseus and P. sandarakinus, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness and the DNA–DNA relatedness data, were sufficient to allow the classification of strain DS-57T as a species that is separate from recognized Pedobacter species. On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, therefore, strain DS-57T represents a novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-57T (=KCTC 12762T=DSM 17933T).
A long, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain EMB13T, was isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Korea. The isolate was strictly aerobic and non-motile. The strain grew optimally at 30–35 °C and pH 7.5–8.0, and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 1 ω5c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The strain contained a large amount of phosphatidylethanolamine and small amounts of phosphatidylcholine and an unknown phospholipid as the polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.1 mol% and the major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EMB13T belonged to the genus Runella and was most closely related to Runella limosa EMB111T, with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.1 %. DNA–DNA relatedness between strain EMB13T and R. limosa EMB111T was approximately 25 %. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, it is clear that strain EMB13T represents a novel species within the genus Runella, for which the name Runella defluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EMB13T (=KCTC 12614T =DSM 17976T).
Three isolates of a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from the lung and liver of two beaked whales, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the family Flavobacteriaceae, although they did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the three new isolates shared 100 % sequence similarity. The unknown bacterium was phylogenetically closely related to, but distinct from the type strains of Flavobacterium johnsoniae (93.7 % sequence similarity), Flavobacterium frigidimaris (93.4 %), Flavobacterium aquidurense (93.4 %), Flavobacterium hibernum (93.4 %) and Flavobacterium degerlachei (93.4 %). The novel isolates were readily distinguished from these and other related Flavobacterium species by physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown isolates from whales are classified as a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, Flavobacterium ceti sp. nov. The type strain is 454-2T (=CECT 7184T =CCUG 52969T).
A collection of eight clinical strains from Belgian hospitals and three clinical strains of the CCUG collection were characterized biochemically as being similar to CDC groups II-h and II-c; the latter differs from group II-h only by positivity for sucrose acidification. These 11 strains were found to cluster according to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity at a level of ≥99.5 %, and on the basis of their tDNA-PCR profile. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this collection of strains was related most closely to Chryseobacterium hispanicum (97.2 %), but they differed from the type strain of this species by the following phenotypic characteristics: growth at 37 °C, negativity for xylose acidification, positivity for acetate assimilation–alkalinization on Simmons’ agar base and absence of flexirubin pigments, and by their tDNA-PCR profile. Strain NF802T showed only 57.8 % DNA–DNA relatedness to the type strain of C. hispanicum. Fatty acid composition did not enable differentiation from C. hispanicum. The DNA G+C content of strain NF802T is 36.5 mol%. The name Chryseobacterium hominis sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon, with type strain NF802T (=CCUG 52711T=CIP 109415T).
Two marine, heterotrophic, aerobic, pigmented and gliding bacteria, isolated from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomy study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strains KMM 6032T and KMM 6047 formed a distinct branch within the genus Arenibacter, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The level of sequence similarity between the novel isolates and members of the genus Arenibacter was 94.5–98.9 %. The DNA G+C content was 39–40 mol%. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1, iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0, C15 : 1 ω6c, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 1 ω9c, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c). The results of DNA–DNA hybridization experiments supported by phenotypic data indicated that the isolates represent a novel species within the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter echinorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 6032T (=KCTC 22013T=LMG 22574T).