Thermophilic (strain GOMI-1T) and mesophilic (strain KOME-1T) strains were isolated from two different cultures of propionate-degrading consortia obtained from thermophilic digester sludge and rice paddy soil, respectively. The two strains were non-spore-forming, non-motile and Gram-negative. Both strains were obligately anaerobic micro-organisms, showing multicellular filamentous morphotypes more than 100 μm in length. The cell width for strain GOMI-1T was 0.2–0.4 μm and that of strain KOME-1T was 0.4–0.6 μm. Strain GOMI-1T could grow at 45–65 °C with a pH range of 6.0–7.5 (optimum growth at 55 °C, pH 7.0). The temperature range for growth of strain KOME-1T was 30–40 °C and the pH range was pH 5.0–8.5 (optimum growth around 37 °C, pH 7.0). Yeast extract was required for growth of both strains. Strain GOMI-1T was able to grow with a number of carbohydrates in the presence of yeast extract. In yeast extract-containing medium, strain KOME-1T could utilize proteins and a limited range of sugars for growth. The G+C contents of the DNA of strains GOMI-1T and KOME-1T were respectively 54.7 and 57.6 mol%. Major fatty acids of strain GOMI-1T were C16 : 0, C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0, whereas those of strain KOME-1T were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C14 : 0. Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains GOMI-1T and KOME-1T, the strains were placed in different phylogenetic positions in the class Anaerolineae of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi. Their phenotypic and genetic traits strongly supported the conclusion that the strains should be described as two independent taxa in the class Anaerolineae. Hence, we propose the names Bellilinea caldifistulae gen. nov., sp. nov., and Longilinea arvoryzae gen. nov., sp. nov., for strains GOMI-1T and KOME-1T. The type strains of Bellilinea caldifistulae and Longilinea arvoryzae are respectively GOMI-1T (=JCM 13669T =DSM 17877T) and KOME-1T (=JCM 13670T =KTCC 5380T).
A thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium (strain CBS-1T) was isolated from a hot spring mixture of water and mud of the Changbai Mountains, China. Strain CBS-1T was found to be non-sporulating, Gram-negative, with optimal growth at 75–80 °C. It grew on a wide range of carbon sources, including glucose, lactose, maltose, starch, sorbitol and pyruvate amongst others. The DNA G+C content of strain CBS-1T was 31.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strain was a member of the genus Fervidobacterium. The high concentration of C16 : 0 (52.2 %) in the fatty acid profile of the cell envelope supported its inclusion as a member of the genus Fervidobacterium. On the basis of the low values of DNA–DNA hybridization (25.8 and 20.5 %) and phenotypic features, strain CBS-1T represents a novel species of the genus Fervidobacterium, for which the name Fervidobacterium changbaicum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CBS-1T (=DSM 17883T=JCM 13353T).
Two Gram-negative, non-motile, coccoid or rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacteria designated strains YM21-132T and YM27-005T were isolated from marine animals, and were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic examination. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two isolates belong to the genus Rubritalea of the phylum ‘Verrucomicrobia’ (subdivision 1). The novel isolates shared approximately 97–98 % sequence similarity with each other and showed 93–97 % similarity with Rubritalea species of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness between strains YM21-132T and YM27-005T was less than 70 %, which is accepted as the phylogenetic definition of a species. Both strains produced reddish carotenoid pigments and squalene. The cell wall peptidoglycan of both strains contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA were 48.0 mol% (strain YM21-132T) and 50.3 mol% (strain YM27-005T). The presence of MK-8 and MK-9 as the major isoprenoid quinones, and iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω7c as the major cellular fatty acids supported the identification of the two novel strains as members of the genus Rubritalea. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic studies, it was concluded that these strains should be classified as representing two novel, separate species in the genus Rubritalea within the phylum ‘Verrucomicrobia’, for which the names Rubritalea spongiae sp. nov. (type strain YM21-132T=MBIC08281T=KCTC 12906T) and Rubritalea tangerina sp. nov. (type strain YM27-005T=MBIC08282T=KCTC 12907T) are proposed.