Analyses of nucleotide sequences from the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA and phenotypic characteristics showed that the genera Moniliella and Trichosporonoides are members of a single, monophyletic clade that would be best represented by a single anamorphic genus. On the basis of taxonomic priority, we propose the transfer of the five species of the genus Trichosporonoides to the genus Moniliella. The description of the genus Moniliella is emended and the following new combinations are proposed: Moniliella madida comb. nov., Moniliella megachiliensis comb. nov., Moniliella nigrescens comb. nov., Moniliella oedocephalis comb. nov. and Moniliella spathulata comb. nov. In addition, ten strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the Moniliella clade were isolated from flowers in Thailand, Cuba and Brazil. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 large-subunit rDNA sequences indicated that the isolates represent a single species that was distinct from other species of the Moniliella clade. The name Moniliella fonsecae sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is BCC 7726T (=CBS 10551T).
A population of Kiitricha minuta Xu et al., 2008 , a small kiitrichid ciliate, was isolated from a brackish water sample in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, northern China. After comparison of its morphology and infraciliature, it is believed that this morphotype should be assigned to the genus Caryotricha; hence, a new combination is suggested, Caryotricha minuta ( Xu et al., 2008 ) nov. comb. The small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence was determined in order to elucidate the phylogenetic position of this poorly known, ambiguous genus. The organism can be clearly separated from its congener, Caryotricha convexa Kahl, 1932, by the extremely shortened ventral cirral rows in the posterior ends. Based on the data available, an improved diagnosis is given for the genus: marine Kiitrichidae with prominent buccal field; two highly developed undulating membranes; non-grouped, uniform cirral rows on both ventral and dorsal sides; enlarged transverse cirri present, which are the only differentiated cirri; marginal cirri not present; one short migratory row located posterior to buccal field; structure of dorsal kineties generally in Kiitricha pattern. The sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of C. minuta differs by 13 % from that of Kiitricha marina. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian inference, least squares, neighbour joining, maximum parsimony) indicate that Caryotricha, together with Kiitricha, diverges at a deep level from all other spirotrichs. Its branching position is between Phacodiniidia and Licnophoridia. The results strongly support the distinct separation of the Kiitricha–Caryotricha clade, which always branches basal to the Stichotrichia–Hypotrichia–Oligotrichia–Choreotrichia assemblage. These results also confirm the previous hypothesis that the Kiitricha–Caryotricha group, long assumed to be a close relation to the euplotids, represents a taxon at subclass level within the spirotrichs.
The genus Kiitricha was long assumed to be the most primordial taxon in the Stichotrichia [hypotrichs sensu lato (s. l.)] based on its morphological features and was considered to be an intermediate between heterotrichs and the traditional hypotrichous assemblage. In order to evaluate the phylogenetic position of Kiitricha within the Hypotrichia, we sequenced the small-subunit rRNA gene and the alpha-tubulin gene for a Qingdao population of Kiitricha marina. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared to morphological and morphogenetic data. The results show that (i) Kiitricha is positioned near Phacodinium, both of which always form a sister clade to the assemblage including Stichotrichia, Hypotrichia, Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia, (ii) Kiitricha, which may represent an intermediate between heterotrichs (s. l.) and the Stichotrichia–Hypotrichia complex, is probably an ancestor-like form of the latter group and (iii) in contrast to morphological characters, both molecular and ontogenetic data support the separation of Kiitricha from the hypotrichs (s. l.). Thus, Kiitricha might be placed in the class Spirotrichea at about subclass level, next to Phaconidiidia, Hypotrichia and Stichotrichia, which supports the establishment of a new subclass Protohypotrichia n. subclass within the class Spirotrichea, with characterizations including slightly differentiated somatic ciliature (i.e. cirri on the ventral side generally uniform and non-grouped, no clearly defined marginal cirral rows, ciliature on the dorsal side mixed with cirri and dikinetids, no clearly differentiated dorsal kineties) and a unique but intermediate morphogenetic pattern of cortical structures between Hypotrichia and Stichotrichia.