We investigated the use of atpA gene sequences as alternative phylogenetic and identification markers for vibrios. A fragment of 1322 bp (corresponding to approximately 88 % of the coding region) was analysed in 151 strains of vibrios. The relationships observed were in agreement with the phylogeny inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. For instance, the Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio halioticoli, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio splendidus species groups appeared in the atpA gene phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that these groups may be considered as separate genera within the current Vibrio genus. Overall, atpA gene sequences appeared to be more discriminatory for species differentiation than 16S rRNA gene sequences. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities above 97 % corresponded to atpA gene sequences similarities above 80 %. The intraspecies variation in the atpA gene sequence was about 99 % sequence similarity. The results showed clearly that atpA gene sequences are a suitable alternative for the identification and phylogenetic study of vibrios.
One hundred and forty-four fluorescent pseudomonad strains isolated from various environments (soil, water, plant rhizosphere, hospital) and received as Pseudomonas putida (83 strains), P. putida biovar A (49 strains), P. putida biovar B (10 strains) and P. putida biovar C (2 strains), were analysed by the pyoverdine-isoelectrofocusing and pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake methods of siderotyping. Both methods demonstrated a great diversity among these strains, which could be subdivided into 35 siderovars. Some siderovars specifically included strains that have subsequently been transferred to well-defined Pseudomonas species, e.g. Pseudomonas monteilii or Pseudomonas mosselii, or which could be related by their siderotype to Pseudomonas jessenii or Pseudomonas mandelii. Other siderovars included strains sharing a high level of DNA-DNA relatedness (>70 %), thus demonstrating that siderotyping could easily circumscribe strains at the species level. However, a group of seven strains, including the type strain, P. putida ATCC 12633T, were allocated into four siderovars, despite sharing DNA–DNA relatedness values of higher than 70 %. Interestingly, the strong genomic relationships between these seven strains were supported by the structural relationships among their pyoverdines, thus reflecting their phylogenetic affinities. These results strongly support the view that pyoverdine-based siderotyping could be used as a powerful tool in Pseudomonas taxonomy.