A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain T98T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Forsythia mira. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the nifH gene and the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain T98T was a member of the genus Paenibacillus. High levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity were found between strain T98T and Paenibacillus durus ATCC 35681T (97.0 %), Paenibacillus sabinae DSM 17841T (98.3 %) and Paenibacillus zanthoxyli DSM 18202T (96.8 %). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain T98T and the type strains of other recognized members of the genus Paenibacillus were below 97.0 %. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain T98T and P. durus ATCC 35681T, P. sabinae DSM 17841T and P. zanthoxyli DSM 18202T were 27.6, 30.0 and 32.1 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain T98T was 50.4 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and levels of DNA–DNA hybridization, strain T98T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus forsythiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T98T (=CCBAU 10203T =DSM 17842T).
A Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, irregular rod-shaped (0.7–0.9×2.5–5.0 μm), halophilic bacterial strain, NTU-101T, was isolated from Chigu saltern in southern Taiwan, previously used as a salt production field. The isolate was characterized taxonomically based on biochemical and molecular approaches. It grows optimally at 40 °C and in the presence of 5–10 % NaCl. Strain NTU-101T has cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 are the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 37.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed its affiliation to the genus Virgibacillus. DNA–DNA relatedness values between strain NTU-101T and Virgibacillus dokdonensis and Virgibacillus pantothenticus were 17.5 and 21.5 %, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, strain NTU-101T (=BCRC 17637T=CGMCC 1.6496T) was classified as a novel strain of Virgibacillus species, for which the name Virgibacillus chiguensis sp. nov. is proposed.
Four bacterial strains, designated K9T, K105, K1012A and K101, were isolated from soil in Lithuania. All these strains could use n-butanol as a sole carbon source. The strains grew in a medium containing 12–120 mM n-butanol. The strains were strictly aerobic, Gram-positive endospore-formers. The best growth was achieved at 25 °C and pH 7.0 in medium containing 1 % (w/v) NaCl. The strains showed identical profiles of 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer PCR and nearly identical 16S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP electrophoretic patterns and physiological characteristics, demonstrating their relationship at the species level. The cellular fatty acid profile of K9T consisted of significant amounts of the C15 branched-chain fatty acids iso-C15 : 0 (16.78 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (45.80 %). The diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of K9T showed the highest similarity to the sequences of Bacillus simplex DSM 1321T and Bacillus muralis LMG 20238T (98.3 and 97.7 %, respectively). The DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. Studies of DNA–DNA relatedness, morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses and phylogenetic data based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed strains K9T, K105, K1012A and K101 to be described as members of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus butanolivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K9T (=DSM 18926T =LMG 23974T).