An aerobic, yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain BD-b365T, was isolated from sediment of the Hakjang stream in Busan, South Korea. Growth was observed at 15–40 °C (optimum 20–30 °C) and at pH 6.0–9.5 (optimum pH 7.0–8.0). Cells were non-spore-forming rods that showed gliding motility and contained branched and hydroxy fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.4 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The major polar lipid of strain BD-b365T was phosphatidylethanolamine. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain BD-b365T formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus Flavobacterium. Based on levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the novel strain was related most closely to Flavobacterium aquidurense WB 1.1-56T, but the level of DNA–DNA relatedness between these two strains was only 9.6 %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, it is clear that strain BD-b365T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium resistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BD-b365T (=KCTC 22078T =DSM 19382T).
A novel aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative bacterium, designated AS06/20aT, was isolated from coastal waters of the Adriatic Sea and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Cells were rod-shaped and formed non-pigmented punctiform colonies on agar plates. The novel isolate grew heterotrophically on a variety of carbon compounds, including organic acids, carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids and complex organic substrates. Cells grew at 15–33 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.5–8.5 (optimum pH 7.5–8.0) and between 2 and 6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2 %). The dominant fatty acids (>5 %) detected in strain AS06/20aT were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AS06/20aT fell within the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AS06/20aT was most closely related to members of the genera Zeaxanthinibacter and Robiginitalea, sharing 92–93 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with representatives of these genera. It is proposed, from the results of the polyphasic taxonomic analysis, that the strain should be placed in a new genus, Eudoraea gen. nov., with Eudoraea adriatica sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain is AS06/20aT (=DSM 19308T=CIP 109577T=OOB 358T).
A marine bacterial strain, designated strain JUB59T, was isolated from surface seawater in Antarctica and subsequently characterized. Cells were found to be Gram-negative, non-motile rods forming butyrous, shiny, yellowish orange colonies on marine agar. Growth occurred at 2–28 °C (optimally at 22–25 °C) but not at 30 °C; Na+ ions were required, but 9 % NaCl (w/v) was not tolerated. Phylogenetic analysis, based on comparisons of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel isolate with the sequences of closely related strains, showed that strain JUB59T belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae, representing a novel species of the genus Bizionia. The highest levels of sequence similarity were found with respect to Bizionia myxarmorum ADA-4T (97.4 %) and Bizionia algoritergicola APA-1T (97.1 %). However, the DNA–DNA relatedness of strain JUB59T with respect to these two strains was low (15.9–17.3 and 19.3–22.1 %, respectively). The predominant fatty acids of strain JUB59T were iso-15 : 1ω10c (18.1 %), iso-15 : 0 (17.3 %), anteiso-15 : 0 (13.9 %), iso-17 : 0 3-OH (9.2 %), 15 : 0 (6.0 %) and iso-16 : 0 3-OH (5.3 %). The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an aminolipid, an amino-positive phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. MK-6 was the major respiratory quinone (>90 %) and the DNA G+C content was 34 mol%. On the basis of the data obtained, strain JUB59T represents a novel species of the genus Bizionia, for which the name Bizionia argentinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JUB59T (=DSM 19628T=CCM-A-29 1259T).