A Gram-negative, non-motile, neutrophilic, rod-shaped, extremely halophilic archaeon, designated strain BG-1T, was isolated from a salt lake, Lake Bagaejinnor, in Inner Mongolia, China. Strain BG-1T was able to grow at 25–55 °C, required at least 2.5 M NaCl for growth (with an optimum at 3.4 M NaCl) and grew at pH 6.0–9.0 (with an optimum at pH 7.5). Hypotonic treatment with less than 2.0 M NaCl caused cell lysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence positioned the isolate within the genus Halorubrum in the family Halobacteriaceae. Strain BG-1T was most closely related to Halorubrum aidingense 31-hongT (98.8 % sequence similarity), Halorubrum saccharovorum NCIMB 2081T (98.6 %), Halorubrum lacusprofundi ACAM 34T (98.6 %) and Halorubrum lipolyticum 9-3T (98.4 %). However, values for DNA–DNA hybridization between strain BG-1T and the most closely related members of the genus Halorubrum were below 40 %. Analysis of the polar lipids of strain BG-1T revealed the presence of mannosyl-2-sulfate-(1-4)-glycosyl-archaeol, the main glycolipid found in neutrophilic species of the genus Halorubrum. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.4 mol% (T m). Comparison of the phenotypic characteristics of the strain with those of Halorubrum species supported the conclusion that BG-1T represents a novel species within this genus, for which the name Halorubrum kocurii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BG-1T (=CECT 7322T =CGMCC 1.7018T =JCM 14978T).
A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, extremely halophilic archaeon, designated strain HPC1-2T, was isolated from pla-ra, a salt-fermented fish product of Thailand. Strain HPC1-2T was able to grow at 20–60 °C (optimum at 37–40 °C), at 2.6–5.1 M NaCl (optimum at 3.4–4.3 M NaCl) and at pH 5.0–8.0 (optimum at pH 7.0–7.5). Hypotonic treatment with less than 1.7 M NaCl caused cell lysis. The major polar lipids of the isolate were C20C20 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, methylated phosphatidylglycerol phosphate, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, triglycosyl diether, sulfated triglycosyl diether and sulfated tetraglycosyl diether. The G+C content of the DNA was 65.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate represented a member of the genus Halobacterium in the family Halobacteriaceae. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain HPC1-2T was related most closely to Halobacterium salinarum DSM 3754T (99.2 %) and Halobacterium jilantaiense JCM 13558T (97.8 %). However, low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness suggested that strain HPC1-2T was genotypically different from these closely related type strains. Strain HPC1-2T could also be differentiated based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, strain HPC1-2T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacterium piscisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HPC1-2T (=BCC 24372T=JCM 14661T=PCU 302T).