Four alkaligenous, moderately halotolerant strains, designated ge09, ge10T, ge14T and ge15, were isolated from the internal tissue of ginseng root and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the four strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, short rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains ge09 and ge10T formed one cluster and strains ge14T and ge15 formed another separate cluster within the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of other Bacillus species were less than 97 %. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness among the four strains showed that strains ge09 and ge10T and strains ge14T and ge15 belonged to two separate species; the mean level of DNA–DNA relatedness between ge10T and ge14T was only 28.7 %. Their phenotypic and physiological properties supported the view that the two strains represent two different novel species of the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains ge10T and ge14T were 49.9 and 49.6 mol%, respectively. Strains ge10T and ge14T showed the peptidoglycan type A4α l-Lys–d-Glu. The lipids present in strains ge10T and ge14T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids. Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The fatty acid profiles of the four novel strains contained large quantities of branched and saturated fatty acids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (42.5 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (22.2 %), anteiso-C17 : 0 (7.3 %) and C16 : 1 ω7c alcohol (5.7 %) in ge10T and iso-C15 : 0 (50.7 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (20.1 %) in ge14T. On the basis of their phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, two novel species of the genus Bacillus are proposed, Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. (type strain ge10T =DSM 19037T =CGMCC 1.6762T) and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov. (type strain ge14T =DSM 19038T =CGMCC 1.6763T).
Thirty six Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterial strains were isolated from the non-salted pickle solution used in producing sunki products, a traditional Japanese pickle. The novel strains were discriminated and separated into four groups by amplified fragment length polymorphism profiling, and by analysis based on recA gene sequences. The strains were classified into four species groups belonging to the Lactobacillus buchneri species group, which consists of L. buchneri, Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus parakefiri. The phenotypic and genotypic features of the four groups demonstrated that they represented four novel species, for which the names Lactobacillus kisonensis sp. nov. (type strain YIT 11168T=NRIC 0741T=JCM 15041T=DSM 19906T), Lactobacillus otakiensis sp. nov. (type strain YIT 11163T=NRIC 0742T=JCM 15040T=DSM 19908T), Lactobacillus rapi sp. nov. (type strain YIT 11204T=NRIC 0743T=JCM 15042T=DSM 19907T) and Lactobacillus sunkii sp. nov. (type strain YIT 11161T=NRIC 0744T=JCM 15039T=DSM 19904T) are proposed.
Gram-positive, catalase-negative, chain-forming, coccus-shaped organisms were isolated both from intraperitoneally grown vesicles of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and the oropharynges of laboratory-kept Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The strains displayed no haemolytic activity on Columbia sheep blood agar, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase activity was negative and the organisms reacted weakly with Lancefield group D antiserum. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, the strains were tentatively identified as members of the genus Streptococcus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed their assignment to the genus Streptococcus and revealed that Streptococcus hyointestinalis DSM 20770T was their closest phylogenetic neighbour (96.5 % sequence similarity). The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolates and representatives of species of the genus Streptococcus were only 95.7–96.2 %. On the basis of the phenotypic and molecular data presented, the isolates from Mongolian jirds represent a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus merionis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WUE3771T (=DSM 19192T=CCUG 54871T).
A novel lactic acid bacterium, strain MIC1-18T, was isolated from crude oil collected at an oil–water well in Akita, Japan. Cells of strain MIC1-18T were found to be facultatively anaerobic, mesophilic, neutrophilic, Gram-negative, non-sporulating, motile by means of peritrichous flagella and oval rods, 1.8–2.5 μm long. Optimum growth was observed at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain MIC1-18T produced acid from l-arabinose, ribose, glucose, fructose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose, gentiobiose and 5-ketogluconate. l-Lactic acid was the major end product from glucose. The major cellular fatty acid was C16 : 1 ω7c. The cell-wall murein type was A4α containing Lys–Glu. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain MIC1-18T was accommodated as a member of the lactic acid bacteria of the low-G+C content Gram-positive bacteria; the closest neighbour of this organism was Atopococcus tabaci CCUG 48253T, with only 90.0 % sequence similarity. On the basis of the phenotypic features and phylogenetic position, a novel genus and species, Lacticigenium naphtae gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed for strain MIC1-18T (=NBRC 101988T=DSM 19658T).
A novel Gram-positive-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccus, designated YIM-Y21T, was isolated from a salt mine in Yunnan, south-west China. The strain was moderately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic and obligately aerobic. Colonies were white. Growth occurred with 1.0–30.0 % NaCl (optimum, 10.0 % NaCl), at pH 6.0–10.0 (optimum, pH 8.5) and at 5–40 °C (optimum, 25 °C). The major amino acid constituents of the cell wall were glycine and lysine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. MK-6 was the predominant respiratory quinone, with MK-7 present in minor amounts. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 46.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain YIM-Y21T was most closely related to the type strains of the nine recognized species of the genus Salinicoccus. The sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of members of this genus were in the range of 90.6–93.8 %, which indicated that strain YIM-Y21T is a representative of a novel species within the genus Salinicoccus. Together with the phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic differences, these results support the proposal of a novel species of the genus Salinicoccus, Salinicoccus albus sp. nov., with YIM-Y21T (=CCTCC AA 207024T =DSM 19776T =KCTC 13192T) as the type strain.