A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain IP6SC6T, was isolated from surface-sterilized bark of Bruguiera gymnorhiza collected from Zhanjiang Mangrove Forest National Nature Reserve in Guangdong, China. Cells of strain IP6SC6T were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. Strain IP6SC6T grew at 20–42 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0–8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0–2 %). Chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the isolate possessed meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan, galactose and glucose as whole-cell sugars, and MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain IP6SC6T belonged to the genus Phycicoccus and shared the highest sequence similarity with Phycicoccus jejuensis NRRL B-24460T (96.97 %). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain IP6SC6T represents a novel species of the genus Phycicoccus, for which the name Phycicoccus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IP6SC6T ( = DSM 100020T = CGMCC 4.7300T).
A novel actinobacterial strain, YIM ART06T, was isolated from a rock sample of karst cave located at Guizhou province, south-west China, and was characterized by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain YIM ART06T were in accordance with those of the genus Stackebrandtia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain YIM ART06T showed highest similarity to Stackebrandtia nassauensis JCM 14905T (98.0 %). The DNA–DNA hybridization value between strains YIM ART06T and S. nassauensis JCM 14905T was, however, moderately high (62.9 %) but below the 70 % limit for species identification. Strain YIM ART06T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and mannose, ribose and xylose in the whole-cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinones detected were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-11(H4) and MK-11(H6), while the cell membrane polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and three unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM ART06T was 71 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. Based on the taxonomic characteristics from the genotypic and phenotypic results, strain YIM ART06T merits recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Stackebrandtia, for which the name Stackebrandtia cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM ART06T ( = KCTC 39599T = CCTCC AA 2015021T = DSM 100594T).
A novel Gram-stain-positive strain with sandy aerial mycelium and golden yellow substrate mycelium, designated fd2-tbT, was isolated from a soil sample collected in Shanghai, China, and its taxonomic status was established by phylogenetic analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain fd2-tbT belonged to the genus Streptomyces and was related to Streptomyces amritsarensis JCM 19660T (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces flavotricini NBRC 12770T (99.9 %), Streptomyces polychromogenes NBRC 13072T (99.8 %), Streptomyces racemochromogenes NRRL B-5430T (99.7 %), Streptomyces globosus LMG 19896T (99.5 %), Streptomyces toxytricini NBRC 12823T (99.5 %) and Streptomyces katrae NBRC 13447T (99.3 %). The cell wall of strain fd2-tbT contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, and whole-cell sugars were identified as glucose and ribose. The menaquinones MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) were also detected. In addition, the polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as five unidentified phospholipids, were detected. Major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments showed that strain fd2-tbT exhibited 36.5 ± 0.6 %, 43.5 ± 2.0 %, 11.1 ± 1.3 %, 10.3 ± 3.1 %, 9.8 ± 1.9 %, 48.9 ± 3.9 % and 16.3 ± 1.7 % relatedness to S. amritsarensis JCM 40119660T, S. flavotricini NBRC 12770T, S. polychromogenes NBRC 13072T, S. racemochromogenes NRRL B-5430T, S. globosus LMG 19896T, S. toxytricini NBRC 12823T and S. katrae NBRC 13447T, respectively. Based on these analyses as well as some phenotypic differences, strain fd2-tbT is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces yangpuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is fd2-tbT ( = DSM 100336T = CGMCC 4.7256T).
An aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile, coccus-shaped actinobacterium, designated strain L2-1-L1T, was isolated from mangrove sediment in Thailand. The organism was deep orange, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at temperatures between 17 and 32 °C and with NaCl concentrations up to 10 %. Chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain L2-1-L1T were typical of the genus Kineococcus. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose and ribose. The menaquinone was MK-9(H2). Mycolic acids were not detected. Anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0 were detected as the major cellular fatty acids. The major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phosphoglycolipid. The G+C content of the DNA was 74.7 mol%. A phylogenetic tree, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain L2-1-L1T represents a novel member of the genus Kineococcus. The most closely related species were Kineococcus endophytica KLBMP 1274T, Kineococcus aurantiacus NBRC 15268T and Kineococcus rhizosphaerae RP-B16T, with 98.9, 98.6 and 98.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA–DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, a novel species of the genus Kineococcus is proposed: Kineococcus magrovi sp. nov. The type strain is strain L2-1-L1T ( = BCC 75409T = NBRC 110933T).
A novel Bifidobacterium, strain LMG 28769T, was isolated from a household water kefir fermentation process. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative and facultatively anaerobic short rods. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed Bifidobacterium crudilactis and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum (97.4 and 97.1 % similarity towards the respective type strain sequences) as nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Its assignment to the genus Bifidobacterium was confirmed by the presence of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Analysis of the hsp60 gene sequence revealed very low similarity with nucleotide sequences in the NCBI nucleotide database. The genotypic and phenotypic analyses allowed the differentiation of strain LMG 28769T from all recognized Bifidobacterium species. Strain LMG 28769T ( = CCUG 67145T = R 54638T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov. is proposed.
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile actinomycete strain, designated EGI 60007T, was isolated from healthy roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis F. collected from Yili County, Xinjiang Province, north-west China. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of the new isolate. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain EGI 60007T had highest similarities with members of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, including Pseudoclavibacter chungangensis CAU 59T (96.98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudoclavibacter helvolus DSM 20419T (96.43 %) and Pseudoclavibacter terrae THG-MD12T (96.14 %). The neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EGI 60007T clustered with members of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, and formed a distinct clade with P. chungangensis CAU 59T. The polar lipids detected for strain EGI 60007T were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 63.3 mol%. The chemotaxonomic features of strain EGI 60007T showed typical characteristics of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, with MK-9 as the respiratory quinone, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diamino acid in the peptidoglycan, and anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The sugars of whole-cell hydrolysates were mainly mannose, rhamnose, ribose and glucose, and a minor amount of xylose. Based on the results of the phylogentic analysis supported by morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and other differentiating phenotypic characteristics, strain EGI 60007T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, for which the name Pseudoclavibacter endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 60007T ( = CGMCC 1.15081T = KCTC 39112T = DSM 29943T).
Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, irregular coccus-shaped bacteria, designated YIM 2617T and YIM 2617-2, were isolated from the root of Ocimum basilicum. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the two strains were closely related to Mariniluteicoccus flavus YIM M13146T (98.1 and 98.0 % similarities, respectively) and formed a robust clade with M. flavus in the neighbour-joining tree. Optimum growth of the strains was observed at 28–32 °C, at pH 7.0–8.0 and in the presence of 0–2 % (w/v) NaCl. The chemotaxonomic profiles of the strains comprised anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acid, MK-9(H4) as the predominant menaquinone, alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and ll-diaminopimelic acid as peptidoglycan components, and phosphatidylcholine and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains YIM 2617T and YIM 2617-2 were 66.4 and 66.6 mol%, respectively. DNA–DNA hybridizations of the two strains with M. flavus YIM M13146T gave mean relatedness values of 47.6 ± 2.0 and 43.2 ± 1.5 %, respectively, while the relatedness value between them was 92.1 ± 2.2 %. On the basis of the data recorded from the present study, strains YIM 2617T and YIM 2617-2 represent a novel species of the genus Mariniluteicoccus, for which the name Mariniluteicoccus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 2617T ( = KCTC 29482T = DSM 28728T = JCM 30097T).
A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1C-HV12T, was isolated from the cuticle of Camponotus japonicas Mayr and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the organism should be assigned to the genus Promicromonospora and that it forms a monophyletic clade with the closest relatives Promicromonospora umidemergens JCM 17975T(99.17 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Promicromonospora vindobonensis V45T (98.88 %) and Promicromonospora iranensis HM 792T (98.85 %). Moreover, morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain 1C-HV12T also confirmed the affiliation of the isolate to the genus Promicromonospora. The peptidoglycan hydrolysates contained alanine, glutamic acid and lysine, and whole-cell sugars were galactose, glucose, rhamnose and ribose. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unidentified phosphoglycolipid, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 71.6 mol%. However, the low level of DNA–DNA relatedness and some phenotypic characteristics allowed the isolate to be differentiated from closely related species. Therefore, it is concluded that strain 1C-HV12T represents a novel species of the genus Promicromonospora, for which the name Promicromonospora alba sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1C-HV12T ( = CGMCC 4.7283T = DSM 100490T).
A novel strain of actinobacteria, designated strain NEAU-ZJC8T, was isolated from a saline–alkaline soil collected from Heilongjiang Province, north-east China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Strain NEAU-ZJC8T exhibited morphological, cultural and chemotaxonomic features consistent with its classification as representing a member of the genus Streptomyces. Growth occurred at 16–35 °C, pH 5.0–11.0 and in the presence of 0–11 % (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose, galactose and ribose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and two unidentified phospholipids. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 72.7 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA sequences showed that strain NEAU-ZJC8T formed a distinct clade within the genus Streptomyces and was closely related to Streptomyces haliclonae DSM 41970T (98.56 % similarity) and Streptomyces marinus NBRC 105047T (97.96 % similarity). A combination of DNA–DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-ZJC8T could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, strain NEAU-ZJC8T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ZJC8T ( = CGMCC 4.7178T = JCM 30057T).
A novel actinobacterium, designated strain SG20T, was isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected from Béni-isguen (Mzab), Ghardaïa province, southern Algeria. The micro-organism developed small roundish sporangia on aerial mycelium that were sessile or carried by very short sporangiophores. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars comprised glucose, ribose and mannose, but madurose was not detected. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown lipids. The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the novel strain resembled those of recognized members of the genus Streptosporangium. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence generated from the strain identified its closest relative as Streptosporangium jomthongense BCC 53154T (98.5 % similarity), which produces single spores on aerial mycelium, but no sporangia. In hybridization experiments, the DNA–DNA relatedness values recorded between strain SG20T and S. jomthongense DSM 46822T fell well below 70 %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain SG20T can be distinguished as representing a novel species of the genus Streptosporangium, for which the name Streptosporangium saharense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SG20T ( = DSM 46743T = CECT 8840T).
A novel Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, endophytic actinomycete, designated strain BR3-1T, which produced spore chains borne on the tips of short sporophores, was isolated from the rhizome of Boesenbergia rotunda collected from Udon Thani province, Thailand. This strain was investigated for its taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The strain contained 3-hydroxydiaminopimelic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars comprised glucose, mannose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides were found as the characteristic phospholipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H6). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.4 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain BR3-1T belonged to the genus Asanoa and was most closely related to Asanoa ishikariensis (99.39 %), Asanoa iriomotensis (99.31 %), Asanoa siamensis (99.17 %), Asanoa ferruginea (98.84 %) and Asanoa hainanensis (98.71 %). The DNA–DNA relatedness value between strain BR3-1T and its phylogenetically closest relatives was in the range of 15.4 % ± 1.2 to 45.8 % ± 2.6. In addition, some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that strain BR3-1T could be readily distinguished from all type strains in the genus Asanoa. Thus, strain BR3-1T should be classified as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Asanoa endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR3-1T ( = BCC 66355T = NBRC 110002T).
Actinomycete strain ZLN234T was isolated from a frozen soil sample, which was collected from a glacier front in the Arctic. Chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics were found to be typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree and was closely related to Streptomyces olivochromogenes ATCC 3336T (98.63 % similarity) and Streptomyces aureus B7319T (98.56 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene also showed clearly that strain ZLN234T was different from all recognized Streptomyces species. The whole-cell sugars were galactose, glucose, ribose and rhamnose. The whole-cell-wall amino acids included alanine, glutamine, glycine and meso-diaminopimelic acid with a minor amount of ll-diaminopimelic acid. The characteristic polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown phospholipids. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H10), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The major cellular fatty acids comprised anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0 with a small amount of iso-C16 : 1ω7 and anteiso-C14 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain ZLN234T was 77.5 mol%. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain ZLN234T ( = CCTCC AA 2015005T = DSM 100713T) is the type strain of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces arcticus sp. nov. is proposed.
A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-G9T, was isolated from the root of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang province, north China, and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Key morphological and chemotaxonomic properties confirmed the affiliation of strain NEAU-G9T to the genus Streptomyces. Strain NEAU-G9T contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0.16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-G9T belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibits the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces yanglinensis JCM 13275T (97.75 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-G9T is most closely related to Streptomyces misakiensis JCM 4062T (97.12 % sequence similarity). A combination of DNA–DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-G9T can be clearly distinguished from S. yanglinensis JCM 13275T and S. misakiensis JCM 4062T. Consequently, strain NEAU-G9T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces polygonati sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-G9T ( = CGMCC 4.7237T = DSM 100521T).
A Gram-stain-positive actinobacterial strain, designated F23T, was isolated from marine sediment collected from the western Pacific. Strain F23T showed less than 94.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of species with validly published names. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that the novel isolate formed a distinct monophyletic clade within the family Brevibacteriaceae and clustered distantly with the genera Brevibacterium and Spelaeicoccus. Cells of strain F23T were non-motile, rod-shaped and aerobic to microaerophilic. Optimal growth occurred at 35–37 °C, at pH 8.0–9.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl (w/v). The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the characteristic cell-wall diamino acid, MK-8(H2) and MK-7(H2) as the predominant menaquinones and anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain F23T was 69.0 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotide patterns, strain F23T represents a novel species in a novel genus in the family Brevibacteriaceae, for which the name Sediminivirga luteola gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F23T ( = JCM 19771T = CGMCC 1.12785T = MCCC 1A09945T).
A novel actinomycete, designated strain S6R2A4-9T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from a karst cave in Henan Province, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. This isolate grew optimally at 25–28 °C, pH 6.5–8.0 and in the absence of NaCl. The substrate mycelium of the isolate was well developed with irregular branches. Aerial mycelium fragmented into long, rod-shaped elements. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain S6R2A4-9T resided in the cluster of the genus Tenggerimyces within the family Nocardioidaceae and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.98 %) with Tenggerimyces mesophilus I12A-02601T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.0 mol%. The strain contained glucose, ribose and xylose in its whole-cell hydrolysates. Strain S6R2A4-9T possessed a novel variation of peptidoglycan derived from the type A1γ meso-Dpm-direct. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoglycolipids and glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and 10-methyl C17 : 0. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain S6R2A4-9T and T. mesophilus I12A-02601T was 27.6 ± 3.0 %, which was low enough to indicate that the strain represents a distinct species of the genus Tenggerimyces. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic evidence, a novel species, Tenggerimyces flavus sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of the novel species is S6R2A4-9T ( = DSM 28944T = CGMCC 4.7241T).
A Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, haloalkaliphilic actinobacterium, strain CK5T, was isolated from a soil sample, collected at Cape King (Antarctica), and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were cocci with orange pigmentation, non-motile and grew optimally at 25 °C and pH 9.0–9.5 in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Cellular membrane contained MK-7 (72 %) and MK-8 (28 %), and anteiso-C15 : 0 (64.8 %), iso-C16 : 0 (13.3 %), n-C17 : 0 (9.9 %), n-C16 : 0 (4.0 %), n-C14 : 0 (3.7 %) as major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 64.8 mol%. Strain CK5T, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, was most closely related to Nesterenkonia jeotgali JG-241T (99.5 %), Nesterenkonia sandarakina YIM 70009T (99.4 %), Nesterenkonia lutea YIM 70081T (99.4 %), Nesterenkonia halotolerans YIM 70084T (99.3 %), Nesterenkonia xinjiangensis YIM 70097T (97.2 %), Nesterenkonia flava CAAS 251T (97.1 %) and Nesterekonia aethiopica CCUG 48939T (97.1 %). Strain CK5T revealed 31 % DNA–DNA relatedness with respect to N. sandarakina DSM 15664T, 29 % with respect to N. jeotgali DSM 19081T, 10 % with respect to N. lutea DSM 15666T and 1 % with respect to N. halotolerans, DSM 15474T, N. xinjiangensis DSM 15475T, N. aethiopica DSM 17733T and N. flava DSM 19422T. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA–DNA hybridization and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain CK5T represents a novel species of the genus Nesterenkonia, for which the name Nesterenkonia aurantiaca sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CK5T ( = DSM 27373T = JCM 19723T).
Forty-three strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from the faeces of two adult black lemurs, Eulemur macaco. Thirty-four were identified as Bifidobacterium lemurum, recently described in Lemur catta. The nine remaining isolates were Gram-positive-staining, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive, microaerophilic, irregular rod-shaped bacteria that often presented Y- or V-shaped cells. Typing techniques revealed that these isolates were nearly identical, and strain LMM_E3T was chosen as a representative and characterized further. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered this isolate inside the genus Bifidobacterium and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity with B. lemurum DSM 28807T (99.3 %), with Bifidobacterium pullorum LMG 21816T and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697T (96.4 and 96.3 %, respectively) as the next most similar strains. The hsp60 gene sequence of strain LMM_E3T showed the highest similarity to that of Bifidobacterium stellenboschense DSM 23968T (93.3 %), and 91.0 % similarity to that of the type strain of B. lemurum. DNA–DNA reassociation with the closest neighbour B. lemurum DSM 28807T was found to be 65.4 %. The DNA G+C content was 62.3 mol%. Strain LMM_E3T showed a peptidoglycan structure that has not been detected in bifidobacteria so far: A3α l-Lys–l-Ser–l-Thr–l-Ala. Based on the phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic data, strain LMM_E3T represents a novel species within the genus Bifidobacterium, for which the name Bifidobacterium eulemuris sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LMM_E3T ( = DSM 100216T = JCM 30801T).
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, coccus-shaped, non-spore-forming actinobacterium, designated strain 2Q3S-4-2T, was isolated from the surface-sterilized bark of Kandelia candel, collected from Cotai Ecological Zones in Macao, PR China. It was tested using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Strain 2Q3S-4-2T grew optimally without NaCl at 28–30 °C and at pH 7.0. Substrate mycelia and aerial mycelia were not formed and no diffusible pigments were observed on the media tested. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, suggested that strain 2Q3S-4-2T belonged to the genus Nakamurella, sharing highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Nakamurella flavida DS-52T (96.76 %). The DNA G+C content of strain 2Q3S-4-2T was 67.8 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-8(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified aminophospholipids and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0. On the basis of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, strain 2Q3S-4-2T represents a novel species of the genus Nakamurella, for which the name Nakamurella endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2Q3S-4-2T ( = DSM 100722T = CGMCC 4.7308T).