Limnochorda pilosa is a pleomorphic facultative anaerobe and the sole species in the class Limnochordia, which has tentatively been placed in the phylum Firmicutes. In the present study, the complete genome sequence of L. pilosa HC45T was obtained and analysed. The genome size was 3.82 Mbp and the DNA G+C content was 69.73 %. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 30S-50S ribosomal proteins and 23S rRNA gene consistently indicated that L. pilosa is phylogenetically isolated from the other members of the phylum Firmicutes. Ultrastructural observation revealed that L. pilosa possesses a Gram-negative-type cell wall and the capacity to form endospores. Accordingly, the L. pilosa genome has characteristics that are specific to Gram-negative bacteria and contains many genes that are involved in sporulation. On the other hand, several sporulation genes were absent from the L. pilosa genome although they have been regarded as essential for the endospore-forming system of members of the phylum Firmicutes. The gyrB gene of L. pilosa possesses an intein sequence. The genome has a high percentage of GTG start codons and lacks several conserved genes related to cell division.