An obligately anaerobic, hyperthermophilic, organoheterotrophic archaeon, strain 1633T, was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring of the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia). Cells were regular cocci, 0.5–0.9 μm in diameter, with one flagellum. The temperature range for growth was 80–95 °C, with an optimum at 84 °C. Strain 1633T grew on yeast extract, beef extract, peptone, cellulose and cellobiose. No growth was detected on other sugars or carbohydrates, organic acids, or under autotrophic conditions. The only detected growth products were CO2, acetate, and H2. The growth rate was stimulated by elemental sulfur, which was reduced to hydrogen sulfide. The in silico-calculated G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 1633T was 55.64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed strain 1633T together with the non-validly published ‘Thermogladius shockii’ strain WB1 in a separate genus-level cluster within the family Desulfurococcaceae. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) results revealed 75.72 % identity between strain 1633T and ‘Thermogladius shockii’ WB1. Based on these results we propose a novel genus and species with the name Thermogladius calderae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of the type species is 1633T ( = DSM 22663T = VKM B-2946T).
A novel, strictly anaerobic, methanogenic archaeon, strain E03.2T, was isolated from a full-scale biogas plant in Germany. Cells were non-motile sarcina-like cocci, occurring in aggregates. Strain E03.2T grew autotrophically on H2 plus CO2, and additionally cells could utilize acetate, methanol, moni-, di- and trimethylamine as carbon and energy sources; however, growth or methanogenesis on formate was not observed. Yeast extract and vitamins stimulated growth but were not mandatory. The optimal growth temperature of strain E03.2T was approximately 45 °C; maximal growth rates were obtained at about pH 7.0 in the presence of approximately 6.8 mM NaCl. The DNA G+C content of strain E03.2T was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene and mcrA sequences placed strain E03.2T within the genus Methanosarcina. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity strain E03.2T was related to seven different species of the genus Methanosarcina, but most closely related to Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1T. Phenotypic, physiological and genomic characteristics indicated that strain E03.2T represents a novel species of the genus Methanosarcina, for which the name Methanosarcina flavescens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E03.2T ( = DSM 100822T = JCM 30921T).