A novel bacterial strain, CJ22T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field located in Anseong, Korea. Cells of strain CJ22T were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, motile, oxidase- and catalase-positive and rod-shaped. The isolate grew optimally at pH 7 and 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain CJ22T belonged to the genus Cohnella, displaying highest sequence similarity of 97.3 % with Cohnella panacarvi Gsoil 349T. DNA–DNA relatedness between strain CJ22T and its closest relative was 35.5 % (reciprocal value, 23.8 %). The phenotypic features of strain CJ22T also distinguished it from related species of the genus Cohnella. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain CJ22T were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. Based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain CJ22T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella saccharovorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CJ22T ( = KACC 17501T = JCM 19227T).
A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic, alkane-degrading strain, L81T, was isolated from a biofilm sampled from a black smoker chimney at the Loki's Castle vent field. Cells were straight, rod-shaped, Gram-positive-staining and motile. Growth was observed at pH 6.2–9.5, 14–42 °C and 0.5–6 % (w/w) NaCl, with optima at pH 7.0–8.2, 37 °C and 3 % (w/w) NaCl. Proteinaceous substrates, sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons were utilized for growth. Thiosulfate was used as an external electron acceptor during growth on crude oil. Strain L81T was capable of syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation when co-cultured with a methanogenic archaeon, designated strain LG6, isolated from the same enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L81T is affiliated with the family Lachnospiraceae, and is most closely related to the type strains of Natranaerovirga pectinivora (92 % sequence similarity) and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica (90 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain L81T were C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0, and the profile was distinct from those of the species of the genus Natranaerovirga. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified glycolipids and two unidentified phosphoglycolipids. The G+C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 31.7 mol%. Based on our phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results, strain L81T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus of the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Abyssivirga alkaniphila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Abyssivirga alkaniphila is L81T ( = DSM 29592T = JCM 30920T). We also provide emended descriptions of Natranaerovirga pectinivora and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica.
Creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] and dahlia (Dahlia sp.) plants showing typical symptoms of phytoplasma infection including yellowing, stunting, inflorescence and proliferation, were sampled; the presence of phytoplasma was confirmed by standard PCR using universal primers. RFLP analysis allowed classification of the detected phytoplasma strains CirYS, CirYS1 and DahlP within the 16SrXI group, the unique restriction profile F2nR2 fragment obtained in silico by iPhyClassifier indicated that they belong to the new 16SrXI-E subgroup. Genetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the studied strains shared less than 97.5 % similarity with all of the previously described ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species. The closest relatives are ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae’ with 96.8 % and 96.6 % similarity. All strains studied bear three specific regions in the 16S rRNA gene, discriminating them from the other phytoplasma species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and secA genes confirmed this specificity, as the creeping thistle and dahlia phytoplasma strains clustered in a distinguishable lineage group. The uniqueness of the genetic analysis agrees with the biological characterization of the studied phytoplasma strains, their host range, and geographical distribution. The strains only infect dicotyledonous plants in Europe, contrary to their closest relatives. Based on their unique properties, it could be concluded that the studied phytoplasma strains represent a discrete group that is proposed as a novel taxon ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii’, with strain CirYS as a reference strain.
A Gram-reaction-positive and rod-shaped bacterium, designated KN3-8-4T, was isolated from shrimp paste collected from a market in Nakhon Sri Thammarat province, Thailand. Strain KN3-8-4T was a strictly aerobic, motile bacterium that produced ellipsoidal endospores at a terminal position. The isolate grew at pH 4.5–10 (optimum pH 7.5), at 11–42 °C (optimum 37 °C) and in the presence of 0–15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1–5 %). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain KN3-8-4T belonged to the genus Virgibacillus and showed highest similarity with Virgibacillus olivae JCM 30551T (97.85 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Strain KN3-8-4T contained anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids and had phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unknown phospholipids and one glycolipid as polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Strain KN3-8-4T showed low DNA–DNA relatedness (20.44 %) with V. olivae JCM 30551T. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analyses, strain KN3-8-4T represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus for which the name Virgibacillus kapii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KN3-8-4T ( = JCM 30071T = LMG 28282T = TISTR 2279T = PCU 345T).
A bacterial strain designated PM10T was isolated from root nodules of Periandra mediterranea in Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus vulneris CCUG 53270T and Paenibacillus yunnanensis YN2T with 95.6 and 95.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The isolate was a Gram-stain-variable, motile, sporulating rod that was catalase-negative and oxidase-positive. Caseinase was positive, amylase was weakly positive and gelatinase was negative. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0 was the major fatty acid. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified lipids. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 52.9 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain PM10T should be considered representative of a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus periandrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PM10T ( = LMG 28691T = CECT 8827T).