A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, CAU 11108T, was isolated from soil in Danghangpo, Republic of Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The bacterium grew optimally at 37 °C, at pH 8, and in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed that strain CAU 11108T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Tumebacillus and was most closely related to Tumebacillus luteolus U13T (98.2 %). The strain contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major respiratory quinone and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 54.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic differentiation, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain CAU 11108T represents a novel species of the genus Tumebacillus , for which the name Tumebacillus soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 11108T (=KCTC 33141T=CECT 8918T).
Facultatively alkaliphilic strains, designated as strains IEB3T and IEB14, were isolated as indigo-reducing strains from a fermented Polygonum indigo (Polygonum tinctorium Lour) liquor sample prepared in our laboratory using a medium containing an indigo fermentation liquor as a sole substrate. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny and similarity suggested that strains IEB3T and IEB14 exhibit distinctive positions among the members of the genus Bacillus , and their closest neighbour was Bacillus nanhaiisediminis NH3T (similarity: 97.4 %) among the species with validly published names. The 16S rRNA sequence of strain IEB3Twas identical to that of strain IEB14. The cells of the isolates stained Gram-positive and were facultatively anaerobic, straight rods that were motile by a pair of subpolar flagella. Strains IEB3T and IEB14 grew at temperatures between 12 and 40 °C with optimum growth at 30‒33 °C and in the range of pH 7.5–12. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was detected as the major isoprenoid quinone. The DNA G+C contents of strains IEB3T and IEB14 were 49.1 and 49.9 mol%, respectively. The whole-cell fatty acid profile mainly (>10 %) consisted of iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. DNA–DNA hybridization revealed a low relatedness value between strain IEB3T and the phylogenetically most closely related species, Bacillus nanhaiisediminis JCM 16507T (<7 % ). On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic data, the isolates represent a novel species within a novel genus, for which the name Fermentibacillus polygoni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IEB3T (=JCM 30817T=NCIMB 14984T).
A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic and moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium, designated BZ-SZ-XJ18T, was isolated from the mixed water and sediment of a saline-alkaline lake located in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BZ-SZ-XJ18T was a member of the genus Bacillus . The closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT (96.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), ‘ Bacillus daqingensis’ X10-1 (96.6 %), Bacillus luteus JC167T (96.5 %), Bacillus daliensis DLS13T (96.2 %), Bacillus chagannorensis CG-15T (95.2 %) and Bacillus polygoni YN-1T (95.0 %). DNA–DNA relatedness between strain BZ-SZ-XJ18T and the reference type strains of the related species of the genus Bacillus was lower than 27 %. The isolate formed yellow pigment and grew in the presence of 0.22–4.32 M Na+ (equivalent to 1.3–25.3 %, w/v, NaCl) (optimum 1.08 M Na+, equivalent to 6.3 %, w/v, NaCl), at pH 6.5–10.0 (optimum pH 8.5–9.5) and at 8–41 ºC (optimum 37 ºC). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (43.0 %), C16:0 (18.1 %), iso-C15:0 (11.3 %), anteiso-C17:0 (8.0 %) and iso-C16:0 (7.0 %). The major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The main respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and the peptidoglycan type of the cell wall was A1γ based on meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.3 mol% (HPLC) or 41.4 mol% (T m). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain BZ-SZ-XJ18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Bacillus urumqiensis within the genus Bacillus . The type strain is BZ-SZ-XJ18T (=DSM 29145T=JCM 30195T).
A Gram-stain-positive staining, motile, endospore forming and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated as strain AS8T, was isolated from a microbial mat deposited at thermal discharges of Manikaran hot spring (with surface water temperature ~95 °C) located in Himachal Pradesh, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain AS8T belonged to the genus Fictibacillus with the highest sequence similarity to Fictibacillus nanhaiensis DSM 23009T (99.9 %) and Fictibacillus phosphorivorans Ca7T (99.9 %), followed by Fictibacillus barbaricus V2-BIII-A2T (99.1 %) and Fictibacillus arsenicus Con a/3T (97.4 %). The polar lipids fraction consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the type A1γ based on directly cross-linked meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain AS8T was found to be 46.9 mol%. The quinone system of strain AS8T consisted of MK-7 predominantly, and the polyamine pattern primarily contained spermidine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids in strain AS8T were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The strain showed DNA–DNA relatedness of 52.7 % with F. nanhaiensis DSM 23009T, 50.7 % with F. phosphorivorans Ca7T, 34.8 % with F. barbaricus V2-BIII-A2T and 38.0 % with F. arsenicus Con a/3T. In spite of the high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the DNA–DNA hybridization and gyr B gene sequencing results (≤87 %) supported by physiological and biochemical tests demonstrated that strain AS8T is a representative of a novel species, for which the name Fictibacillus halophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AS8T (=MCC 2765T=DSM 100124T=KCTC 33758T).
Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis , based primarily on DNA–DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA–DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis . In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans , a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis ). Comparative genomics and DNA–DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis . The pairwise in silico DNA–DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA–DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis , and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis . Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis , we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis . In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis . An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.