Two C yanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1′ and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history.
Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are abundant in a wide variety of soil environments. Despite this, previous cultivation attempts have frequently failed to retrieve representative phylotypes of Acidobacteria , which have, therefore, been discovered by culture-independent methods (13175 acidobacterial sequences in the SILVA database version 123; NR99) and only 47 species have been described so far. Strain Ac_5_C6T represents the first isolate of the globally widespread and abundant subdivision 6 Acidobacteria and is described in the present study. Cells of strain Ac_5_C6T were Gram-stain-negative, immotile rods that divided by binary fission. They formed yellow, extremely cohesive colonies and stable aggregates even in rapidly shaken liquid cultures. Ac_5_C6T was tolerant of a wide range of temperatures (12–40 °C) and pH values (4.7–9.0). It grew chemoorganoheterotrophically on a broad range of substrates including different sugars, organic acids, nucleic acids and complex proteinaceous compounds. The major fatty acids of Ac_5_C6T were iso-C17 : 1 ω9c, C18 : 1 ω7c and iso-C15 : 0. Summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1 ω6c), iso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 0 were also detected. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified glycolipid were identified as polar lipids. The major quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C content of Ac_5_C6T was 65.9 mol%. With 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 83–84 %, the closest described relatives were Acidicapsa borealis KA1T, Acidobacterium capsulatum 161T, Granulicella pectinovorans TPB6011T, Occallatibacter riparius 277T and Paludibaculum fermentans P105T. According to the morphological, physiological and molecular characteristics, the novel genus Vicinamibacter gen. nov., and the novel species, Vicinamibacter silvestris sp. nov. (type strain Ac_5_C6T = DSM 29464T = LMG 29035T) are proposed.
Two novel members of the bacterial phylum ‘ Verrucomicrobia ’, strains CAG34T and CV41T, were isolated from the guts of Cephalotes rohweri and Cephalotes varians ants, respectively. Strains CAG34T and CV41T were coccoid, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, and formed cream-coloured colonies on trypticase soy agar. Optimum growth occurred under an atmosphere of 12–20 % O2 and 1 % CO2 for both strains, although strain CV41T could not grow without supplemental CO2. Growth was possible under NaCl concentrations of 0.5–1.5 % (w/v) and temperatures of 23–37 °C for both strains, and pH values of 6.9–7.7 for strain CAG34T and 6.9–7.3 for strain CV41T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.7 mol% for strain CAG34T and 60.5 mol% for strain CV41T. The major fatty acids for both strains were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, C16 : 0, and C16 : 1 ω5c. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the closest cultivated relative for both strains was the type strain of Opitutus terrae (91.8 % similarity). Hence, strains CAG34T and CV41T are considered to represent a new genus within the ‘ Verrucomicrobia' family Opitutaceae , for which we propose the name Cephaloticoccus gen. nov. Given that strains CAG34T and CV41T share 97.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and are physiologically distinct, we propose to classify the isolates as representing two novel species, Cephaloticoccus primus sp. nov. for strain CAG34T (=NCIMB 15004T =ATCC TSD-38T) and Cephaloticoccus capnophilus sp. nov. for strain CV41T (=NCIMB 15005T =ATCC TSD-39T =DSM 100879T).