A Gram-reaction-positive, strictly aerobic, capsule-forming, motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain XD80T, was isolated from the soil of a native cave in Lichuan, Hubei province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain XD80T was most closely related to Domibacillus iocasae CCTCC AB 2015183T (98.66 % sequence similarity), followed by Domibacillus robiginosus DSM 25058T(97.83 %), Domibacillus tundrae KCTC 33549T (97.70 %), Domibacillus enclensis CCTCC AB 2011121T (97.21 %) and Domibacillus indicus DSM 28032T (96.96 %). Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain XD80T and D. iocasae CCTCC AB 2015183T, D. robiginosusDSM 25058T, D. tundrae KCTC 33549T and D. enclensis CCTCC AB 2011121T were 37.4 %, 53.8 %, 53.6 % and 52.7 %, respectively. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15 : 0 (37.3 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (10.8 %), C16 : 0 (10.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (10.3 %), C16 : 1ω11c (9.6 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (7.4 %). MK-6 (86.4 %) was the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content was 46.4 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (type A1γ). Ribose and glucose were the major whole-cell sugars. In addition, strain XD80T showed differential physiological characteristics from most members of the genus Domibacillus , encompassing hydrolysis of starch, acid production from inositol and raffinose, and production of valine arylamidase. The results of this polyphasic study indicated that strain XD80T represents a novel species of the genus Domibacillus , for which the name Domibacillus antri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XD80T (=CCTCC AB 2015053T=KCTC 33636T).
A Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterial strain, isolated from the stem of a cucumber plant, was studied in detail for its taxonomic position. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain AP-115T was grouped into the genus Paenibacillus , most closely related to Paenibacillus amylolyticus (98.8 %), Paenibacillus tundrae and Paenibacillus barcinonensis (both 98.4 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Paenibacillus was ≤98.4 %. Chemotaxonomic characterization supported allocation of the strain to the genus Paenibacillus . The quinone system contained exclusively menaquinone MK-7, and in the polar lipid profile diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine were predominating. The major component in the polyamine pattern was spermidine, and the diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain AP-115T from closely related species. Thus, AP-115T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus cucumis sp. nov. is proposed, with AP-115T (=LMG 29222T=CCM 8653T) as the type strain.
A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium, designated strain FJAT-27997T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a Loiseleuria plant collected from Sichuan province in China. Growth was observed aerobically between 20 and 35 °C (optimum 30 °C), between 0 and 3.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 0 %) concentration and pH in the range 6.0–9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7. The main fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolate FJAT-27997T was a member of the genus Bacillus and was related most closely to Bacillus simplex DSM 1321T (97.95 % similarity), followed by Bacillus huizhouensis GSS03T (97.9 %). The average nucleotide identity value between strain FJAT-27997T and the most closely related species, B . simplex DSM 1321T, was 71.60 % (JSpecies), less than the previously proposed cut-off value of 96 % for differentiating species within the genus. The in silico DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain FJAT-27997T and its most closely related species were <70 %, again indicating they belong to different taxa. The main fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The novel strain could be differentiated from other known Bacillus species on the basis of several phenotypic characters and fatty acid profiles. This taxononomic/genomic study revealed that strain FJAT-27997T represents a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus loiseleuriae sp. nov. (type strain FJAT-27997T =CCTCC AB 2015285T=DSM 101776T) is proposed.
A thermophilic and phospholipid-degrading bacterium, designated strain B157T, was isolated from acidulocompost, a garbage compost processed under acidic conditions at moderately high temperature. The organism was Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Growth was observed to occur at 40–65 °C and pH 4.8–8.1 (optimum growth: 50–60 °C, pH 6.2). The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, glutamic acid and galactose. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain B157T was related most closely to Tuberibacillus calidus 607T (94.8 % identity), and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belonged to the family Sporolactobacillaceae . The DNA G+C content was determined as 51.8 mol%. In spite of many similarities with the type strains of members of the family Sporolactobacillaceae, genotypic analyses suggest that strain B157T represents a novel species of a new genus, Caenibacillus caldisaponilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Caenibacillus caldisaponilyticus is B157T (=NBRC 111400T=DSM 101100T).
Two novel (S9T and S12) Gram-stain-positive, rod shaped, non-motile and endospore forming bacteria were isolated from Narayan Sarovar lake, in India. The high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.9 %) and DNA–DNA relatedness (86±2 %) indicated that strains S9T and S12 were members of a single species. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, these strains were identified as belonging to the class Firmibacteria and were most closely related to Bacillus agaradhaerens PN-105T (96.8 % sequence similarity), Bacillus neizhouensis JSM 071004T (96.5 %) and Bacillus luteus JC167T (96.1 %). However, these strains shared only 90.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis DSM 10T, indicating that they might not be members of the genus Bacillus . The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and an unknown lipid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids (>5 %) included anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 3. The results of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and biochemical tests allowed a clear differentiation of strains S9T and S12 from all other members of the family Bacillaceae .The strains therefore represent a novel member of a new genus from the family Bacillaceae , for which the name Salipaludibacillus aurantiacus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S9T (=KCTC 33633T=LMG 28644T). Based on the present study, it is also proposed to transfer Bacillus agaradhaerens and Bacillus neizhouensis to this new genus as Salipaludibacillus agaradhaerens comb. nov. and Salipaludibacillus neizhouensis comb. nov.