Three novel strains of the phylum Acidobacteria (Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T) were isolated from Namibian semiarid savanna soils by a high-throughput cultivation approach using low-nutrient growth media. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed all three strains in the order Blastocatellales of the class Blastocatellia ( Acidobacteria subdivision 4). However, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to their closest relative Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes K22T were ≤90 %. Cells of strains Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T were Gram-staining-negative and non-motile and divided by binary fission. Ac_11_E3T and Ac_16_C4T formed white colonies, while those of Ac_12_G8T were orange-yellowish. All three strains were aerobic chemoorganoheterotrophic mesophiles with a broad pH range for growth. All strains used a very limited spectrum of carbon and energy sources for growth, with a preference for complex proteinaceous substrates. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major shared fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of strains Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T were 55.9 mol%, 66.9 mol% and 54.7 mol%, respectively. Based on these characteristics, the two novel genera Brevitalea gen. nov. and Arenimicrobium gen. nov. are proposed, harboring the novel species Brevitalea aridisoli sp. nov. (Ac_11_E3T=DSM 27934T=LMG 28618T), Brevitalea deliciosa sp. nov. (Ac_16_C4T=DSM 29892T=LMG 28995T) and Arenimicrobium luteum sp. nov. (Ac_12_G8T=DSM 26556T=LMG 29166T), respectively. Since these novel genera are only distantly related to established families, we propose the novel family Pyrinomonadaceae fam. nov. that accommodates the proposed genera and the genus Pyrinomonas ( Crowe et al., 2014 ).
Mexican periwinkle virescence (MPV) phytoplasma was originally discovered in diseased plants of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) in Yucatán, Mexico. On the basis of results from RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MPV was previously classified as the first known member of phytoplasma group 16SrXIII, and a new subgroup (16SrXIII-A) was established to accommodate MPV phytoplasma. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MPV represents a lineage distinct from previously described ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ’ species. Nucleotide sequence alignments revealed that strain MPV shared less than 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with all previously described ‘Ca. Phytoplasma ’ species. Based on unique properties of the DNA, we propose recognition of Mexican periwinkle virescence phytoplasma strain MPV as representative of a novel taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma hispanicum’.
The mycoplasma strain ST 57T was isolated from the trachea of a clinically healthy, free-ranging white stork nestling in Nielitz, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. Strain ST 57T grew in fried-egg-shaped colonies on mycoplasma (SP4) agar plates and was dependent on sterol for growth. The organism fermented glucose and did not hydrolyse arginine or urea. The optimal growth temperature was 37 °C, with a temperature range from 23 to 44 °C. Strain ST 57Tcould not be identified as a representative of any of the currently described mycoplasma species by alignment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence or 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region, or by immunobinding assays. Thus, this organism appears to be a representative of a novel species, for which the name Mycoplasma ciconiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST 57T (=ATCC BAA-2401T=DSM 25251T). Four further strains of this species are included in this description (ST 24=DSM 29908, ST 56 Clone 1=DSM 29054, ST 99=DSM 29909, ST 102=DSM 29010). The prevalence of this mycoplasma species in clinically healthy, white stork nestlings in northern Germany was determined. Our species-specific PCR detected 57.8 % (48/83) of the samples positive for M. ciconiae sp. nov. As this species appears to be widespread in the healthy free-ranging white stork population, we conclude that this species is either apathogenic or an opportunistic pathogen in white storks.
Phormidium Kützing ex Gomont, a common genus of the Cyanobacteria , is widely known as a problematic group. Its simple morphology is not congruent with its genetic heterogeneity and several new generic entities have been described based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses from populations with similar morphology. During a study of the diversity of Phormidioideae (Phormidiaceae, Oscillatoriales) in Brazil, ten Phormidium-like strains from south-eastern and mid-western regions were isolated in monospecific cultures and submitted to polyphasic evaluation (morphological, ecological and molecular studies). The populations studied presented homogeneous morphology (trichomes straight, not attenuated and apical cell rounded or obtuse), differing mainly in cell length from the type species of the genus Phormidium (Phormidium lucidum Agardh ex Gomont) and occurring as three morphotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the populations studied, with European Phormidium aerugineo-caeruleum (Gomont) Anagnostidis & Komárek strains, were placed together in a very distinctive and highly supported clade. Thus, the set of characteristics of the strains resulted in the recognition of the new genus Potamolinea Martins et Branco with two species: Potamolinea magna as the type species (strains 47PC and 48PC) and Potamolinea aerugineo-caerulea (Gomont) Martins et Branco (strains 1PC, 2PC and 38PC). These two species plus one still undetermined lineage,Potamolinea sp., are morphologically and genetically distinguishable, whereas the secondary structures of the D1-D1′, box-B and V3 regions were conserved within each one. The generic name and specific epithets of the new taxa are proposed under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.