Phytoplasmas (species of the genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ’) are insect-vectored phytopathogenic bacteria associated with economically and ecologically important crop diseases. Strawberry production represents an important part of agricultural activity in Mexico and elsewhere, and infection of plants with phytoplasma renders the fruit inedible by altering plant development, resulting in virescence and phyllody. In this study we examined samples taken from four strawberry plants showing symptoms associated with strawberry green petal disease and from two periwinkle plants showing virescence, sampled in different areas of Mexico. Analysis of the 16S rRNA-encoding sequences showed that the plants were infected with a phytoplasma previously identified as Mexican periwinkle virescence (MPV; 16SrXIII). Examination of bacterial sequences from these samples revealed that two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in each sample along with a single chaperonin-60 (cpn60) sequence and a single rpoB sequence, suggesting that this strain displays 16S rRNA gene sequence heterogeneity. Two distinct rrn operons, identified with subgroup 16SrXIII-A and the newly described subgroup 16SrXIII-I, were identified from the six samples analyzed, delineating the novel subgroup 16SrXIII-(A/I)I, following the nomenclature proposed for heterogeneous subgroups.
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, strictly anaerobic, oval-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PytT) was isolated from reticulated python faeces. Strain PytT was capable of using mucin as sole carbon, energy and nitrogen source. Cells could grow singly, in pairs, and were also found to aggregate. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures connecting individual bacterial cells. Strain PytT could grow on a limited number of single sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucose, lactose and galactose, but only when a plentiful protein source was provided. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed strain PytT to belong to the Verrucomicrobiae class I, family Akkermansiaceae , genus Akkermansia , with Akkermansia muciniphila MucT as the closest relative (94.4 % sequence similarity). DNA–DNA hybridization revealed low relatedness of 28.3 % with A. muciniphila MucT. The G+C content of DNA from strain PytT was 58.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome of strain PytT compared to the genome of strain MucT was 79.7 %. Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain PytT to the genus Akkermansia . Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic characteristics, strain PytT represents a novel species of the genus Akkermansia , for which the name Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PytT (=DSM 100705T=CIP 110913T).
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystem disease caused by spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) genospecies complex. We previously described a novel Bbsl genospecies (type strain MN14-1420T) that causes LB among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern USA. Patients infected with the novel Bbsl genospecies demonstrated higher levels of spirochetemia and somewhat differing clinical symptoms as compared with those infected with other Bbsl genospecies. The organism was detected from human specimens using PCR, microscopy, serology and culture. The taxonomic status was determined using an eight-housekeeping-gene (uvrA, rplB, recG, pyrG, pepX, clpX, clpA and nifS) multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) and comparison of 16S rRNA gene, flaB, rrf–rrl, ospC and oppA2 nucleotide sequences. Using a system threshold of 98.3 % similarity for delineation of Bbsl genospecies by MLSA, we demonstrated that the novel species is a member of the Bbsl genospecies complex, most closely related to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (94.7–94.9 % similarity). This same species was identified in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin. This novel species, Borrelia mayonii sp. nov, is formally described here. The type strain, MN14-1420, is available through the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zelkulturen GmbH (DSM 102811) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-2743).