An aerobic, budding, dark pink to red-pigmented bacterium was isolated from an acidic boreal Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain SP5T. Cells of this strain were non-motile spheres that were uniformly covered with crateriform pits and fimbria, and tended to form aggregates during growth in liquid media. Strain SP5T was capable of growth between pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 (optimum at pH 5.5–6.0) and at temperatures between 10 and 30 °C (optimum at 20–25 °C). The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides. The major fatty acids were C20 : 1 ω9c, C16 : 1 ω9c and C16 : 0, and the major polar lipid was trimethylornithine. Cells contained also significant amounts of bound (ω-1)OH-C30 : 1 fatty acid. The quinone was menaquinone-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 60.7 mol%. Strain SP5T was a member of the order Planctomycetales and belonged to the phylogenetic lineage defined by the genus Gemmata . It displayed 88 and 89 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gemmata obscuriglobusUQM 2246T and ‘ Gemmata massiliana’ IIL30, 89 % to Zavarzinella formosa A10T and 86 % to Telmatocola sphagniphila SP2T. However, strain SP5T differed from members of these genera by cell morphology, substrate utilization pattern and fatty acid composition. Based on these data, the novel isolate should be considered as representing a novel species of a new genus of planctomycetes, for which the name Fimbriiglobus ruber gen. nov., sp. nov, is proposed. The type strain is SP5T (=LMG 29572T=VKM B-3045T). We also suggest the establishment of a novel family, Gemmataceaefam. nov., which includes the phylogenetically related genera Gemmata , Zavarzinella , Telmatocola and Fimbriiglobus .
A novel phytoplasma subgroup strain SC-Phy385 (GenBank accession number HF586648) was found associated with Sugarcane Grassy Shoot (SCGS) disease in India. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) leaf samples with ‘grassy shoot’ symptoms were collected from the western region of Maharashtra state. The analysis based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles and 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that most of the phytoplasma strains belong to the 16SrXI-B group. However, SCGS phytoplasma strain SC-Phy385 showed unique RFLP profiles with a similarity coefficient of 0.87 using online interactive phytoplasma classification tool, iPhyClassifier. The actual and virtual RFLP profiles of SC-Phy385 using amplified products of the 16S rRNA partial gene and its multiple sequence alignment with other RYD group phytoplasma sequences revealed that this strain was different from phytoplasma groups described earlier, representing new subgroup 16SrXI-F. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis of reported RYD and BGWL group phytoplasmas showed that they are a genetically diverse group of phytoplasmas.
A strictly anaerobic Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain SEBR 4223T, was isolated from the production water of an offshore Congolese oil field. Cells were non-motile, pleomorphic and had spherical, annular or budding shapes, often exhibiting long stalks. Strain SEBR 4223T grew on a range of carbohydrates, optimally at 37 °C and pH 7, in a medium containing 40 g l−1 NaCl. Predominant fatty acids were C14 : 0, C14 : 0 DMA, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c and the major polar lipids were phosphoglycolipids, phospholipids, glycolipids and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the DNA was 28.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain SEBR 4223T and Sphaerochaeta multiformis MO-SPC2T formed a cluster with similarity to other species of the genus Sphaerochaeta of of less than 86 %. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and taxonomic analyses, we propose a novel genus, Pleomorphochaeta gen. nov., to accommodate the novel species Pleomorphochaeta caudata sp. nov., with SEBR 4223T (=DSM 103077T=JCM 31 475T) as the type strain. We also propose the reclassification of Sphaerochaeta multiformis MO SPC2T as Pleomorphochaeta multiformis MO-SPC2T comb. nov., the type strain of this novel genus and emend description of the genus Sphaerochaeta .
The phylum Acidobacteria represents one of the highly diverse but poorly characterized phylogenetic groups of the domain Bacteria. The taxonomically described acidobacteria belong to 27 genera and 49 species, which represent subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 23 of this phylum. However, the corresponding family ranks have been defined only for some of these characterized micro-organisms. Here, we suggest the establishment of a novel family, Bryobacteraceae fam. nov., to accommodate taxonomically described members of subdivision 3 Acidobacteria . This family is characterized by Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile rods, which divide by binary fission. Members of this family are mildly acidophilic, mesophilic, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic chemoheterotrophs that utilize various sugars and polysaccharides. The major fatty acids are iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 1 ω7c; the cells also contain significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyloctacosanedioic (iso-diabolic) acid. Currently, the family comprises the genera Bryobacter and Paludibaculum .