A unicellular cyanobacterium, strain Alchichica-D10, was isolated from microbialites of the alkaline Lake Alchichica, Mexico. The cells were short rods (3.9±0.6 µm in length and 1.1±0.1 µm in width) forming biofilms of intense emerald green colour. They exhibited red autofluorescence under UV light excitation. UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that they contain chlorophyll a and phycocyanin, and electron microscopy showed the presence of thylakoids. The strain grew within a temperature range of 15–30 °C. Genomic DNA G+C content was 52.2 mol%. The most remarkable feature of this species was its granular cytoplasm, due to the presence of numerous intracellular spherical granules (16–26 per cell) with an average diameter of 270 nm. These granules, easily visible under scanning electron microscopy, were composed of amorphous carbonate containing Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr. A multi-gene phylogeny based on the analysis of 59 conserved protein markers supported robustly that this strain occupies a deep position in the cyanobacterial tree. Based on its phenotypic characters and phylogenetic position, strain Alchichica-D10 is considered to represent a new genus and novel species of cyanobacteria for which the name Gloeomargarita lithophora gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Alchichica-D10 (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa CCAP strain 1437/1; Collections de Cyanobactéries et Microalgues Vivantes of the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris strain PMC 919.15). Furthermore, a new family, Gloeomargaritaceae, and a new order, Gloeoemargaritales, are proposed to accommodate this species under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.
A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile strain, designated GKXT, was isolated from deep seawater. Strain GKXT was able to grow at 20–35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), pH 5.5–9.5 (optimum, 7.5) and 0–4.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω9c (15.4 %), C16 : 0 (18.4 %), C14 : 0 (12.0 %), iso-C14 : 0 (30.1 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (5.7 %). Strain GKXT contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid as the main polar lipids. The only isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-9. The diagnostic amino acids of the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain GKXT belonged to the genus Luteolibacter in the family Verrucomicrobiaceae . The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed 98.0, 93.5 and 93.3 % sequence similarity, respectively, with those of Luteolibacter arcticus MC 3726T, L.uteolibacter pohnpeiensisA4T-83T and L.uteolibacter cuticulihirudinis E100T. DNA–DNA hybridization value of strain GKXT with L. arcticus MC 3726T was 33.1 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 59.5 mol%. On the basis of the genotypic, phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain GKXT was proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Luteolibacter , named Luteolibacter flavescens sp. nov. (type strain GKXT=MCCC 1K03193T=KCTC 52361T).