A bacterial strain designated strain SK-11T was isolated from the acidic soil of a deciduous forest in the Shirakami Mountains in Japan. Cells of strain SK-11T were aerobic, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative rods, 0.7–1.0 µm in width and 1.0–1.4 µm in length. The pH range for growth was between pH 4.0 and 5.5, with an optimum at pH 5.0. The temperature range for growth was between 10 and 35 °C, with an optimum at around 25–30 °C. Strain SK-11T utilized various carbohydrates as growth substrates as well as yeast extract and protein hydrolysates. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty acid contents) were iso-C15 : 0 (55.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (16.7 %) and iso-C17 : 1ω9c/10 methyl-hexadecanoic acid (17.7 %). The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified polar lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain SK-11T was 56.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SK-11T belonged to the family Acidobacteriaceae within subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria , and the closest relatives of strain SK-11T were Acidicapsa ligni WH120T and Acidicapsa borealis KA1T, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6 and 96.5 %, respectively. On the basis of the evidence from our polyphasic study, we concluded that strain SK-11T represents a novel species of the genus Acidicapsa , and propose the name Acidicapsa acidisoli sp. nov. The type strain of Acidicapsa acidisolisp nov. is SK-11T (=DSM 100508T=NBRC 111227T).
A yellow-pigmented and strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated FJY8T, was isolated from the soil of Goyang, South Korea. The cells of FJY8T were Gram-reaction-negative, non-motile rods. Colonies were circular, convex and transparent. Strain FJY8T grew optimally at 30 °C, with 0 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of FJY8T revealed a clear affiliation of this bacterium to the family Lysobacteraceae , and it was related to members of the genus Lysobacter , with Lysobacter xinjiangensis KCTC 22558T being its closest relative (98.7 % sequence similarity). The DNA G+C content was 68.0±0.4 mol%. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were identified as the major polar lipids, and an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified aminophospholipids were also detected as the minor polar lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl) and iso-C15 : 0. Only ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) was detected as the isoprenoid quinone. DNA–DNA hybridization values of strain FJY8T with Lysobacter xinjiangensis RCML-52T and Lysobacter mobilis 9NM-14T were 55.8±2.0 and 45.2±4.8 %, respectively. On the basis of DNA–DNA hybridization, phylogenetic distinctiveness, and some physiological and biochemical tests, strain FJY8T (=KCTC 42810T=JCM 31019T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter , for which the name Lysobacter humi sp. nov. is proposed.
A novel amylolytic, nitrate-reducing and diazotrophic bacterium, designated strain CC-MHH0563T, isolated from a fermenter was assessed for its taxonomic status using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CC-MHH0563T were Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, mesophilic and aerobic cocci, which produced reddish nondiffusible pigments. Growth was observed at 15–37 °C (optimal 25 °C), pH 6.0–8.0 (optimal pH 7.0) and salinity of 0–3 % (w/v). Strain CC-MHH0563T showed highest pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to members of the genera Cerasicoccus (89.3–89.5 %), Coraliomargarita (87.8 %), Pelagicoccus (85.8–86.4 %) and Puniceicoccus (87.9 %), and established a discrete taxonomic lineage during phylogenetic analysis. The major fatty acids found in strain CC-MHH0563T were C14 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0, C18 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown aminolipids and two unknown aminophospholipids. The polyamine pattern showed a predominance of spermidine and a minor amount of cadaverine. The DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol% and the predominant quinone system was menaquinone-7. The low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values (<90.0 %) and a distinct phylogenetic clustering clearly distinguished strain CC-MHH0563T from other representatives of the family Puniceicoccaceae . Based on the discrete phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic traits together with the results of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-MHH0563T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Puniceicoccaceae , for which the name Ruficoccus amylovorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is CC-MHH0563T (=BCRC 80918T=JCM 31066T).
Recently, a novel species of the genus Borrelia was identified in Bothriocroton concolor and Ixodes holocyclus ticks from echidnas. Analyses of 16S rRNA and flaB genes identified three closely related genotypes of this bacterium ( Borrelia sp. Aus A-C) that were unique and distinct from previously described borreliae. Phylogenetic analyses of flaB (763 bp), groEL (1537 bp), gyrB (1702 bp) and glpQ (874 bp) gene sequences and concatenated sequences (3585 bp) of three gene loci (16S rRNA, flaB and gyrB) were consistent with previous findings and confirm that this novel species of the genus Borrelia is more closely related to, yet distinct from, the Reptile-associated (REP) and Relapsing Fever (RF) groups. At the flaB locus, genotypes A, B and C shared the highest percentage sequence similarities (87.9, 88 and 87.9 %, respectively) with B.orrelia turcica (REP), whereas at the groEL and gyrB loci, these genotypes were most similar (88.2–89.4 %) to B.orrelia hermsii (RF). At the glpQ locus, genotypes A and B were most similar (85.7 and 85.4 % respectively) to Borrelia sp. Tortoise14H1 (REP). The presence of the glpQ gene, which is absent in the Lyme Borreliosis group spirochaetes, further emphasises that the novel species of the genus Borrelia characterized in the present study does not belong to this group. Phylogenetic analyses at multiple loci produced consistent topographies revealing the monophyletic grouping of this bacterium, therefore providing strong support for its species status. We propose the name ‘Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi’, and hypothesize that this species of the genus Borrelia may be endemic to Australia. The pathogenic potential of this bacterium is not yet known.