A novel sulfur-reducing bacterium, strain K6013T, was isolated from a sulfide sample collected at a depth of 2771 m from a high-temperature hydrothermal vent in the Indian Ocean. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, anaerobic, motile rods (0.9–2.2×0.4–0.6 µm). The strain grew at NaCl concentrations ranging from 1 to 4.5 % (w/v) (optimum 2.5 %), at pH 5 to 8 (optimum pH 6), and at temperatures between 40 and 75 °C (optimum 65 °C). K6013T was an obligate chemolithoautotroph, using thiosulfate, sulfur and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors in the presence of H2 but not sulfate, sulfite nor nitrite. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 (17.4 %), C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c (ummed feature 8, 37.91 %), C18 : 0 (18.29 %) and C14 : 0 3-OH/iso-C16: 1I (summed feature 2, 8.56 %). The DNA G+C content was 38.2 mol%. The results of phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that K6013T represents a member of the genus Desulfurobacterium within the class Aquificae , with highest sequence similarity of 96.93 % to Desulfurobacterium atlanticum SL22T. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, K6013T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Desulfurobacterium , for which the name Desulfurobacterium indicum sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain K6013T (=DSM 101677T=MCCC 1A01868T).