A novel anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from a mud volcano in the Salton Sea geothermal system in southern California, USA. The isolate, named strain 521T, grew optimally at 90 °C, at pH 5.5–7.3 and with 0–2.0 % (w/v) NaCl, with a generation time of 10 h under optimal conditions. Cells were rod-shaped and non-motile, ranging from 2 to 7 µm in length. Strain 521T grew only in the presence of thiosulfate and/or Fe(III) (ferrihydrite) as terminal electron acceptors under strictly anaerobic conditions, and preferred protein-rich compounds as energy sources, although the isolate was capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis places this isolate within the crenarchaeal genus Pyrobaculum . To our knowledge, this is the first Pyrobaculum strain to be isolated from an anaerobic mud volcano and to reduce only either thiosulfate or ferric iron. An in silico genome-to-genome distance calculator reported <25 % DNA–DNA hybridization between strain 521T and eight other Pyrobaculum species. Due to its genotypic and phenotypic differences, we conclude that strain 521T represents a novel species, for which the name Pyrobaculum igneiluti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 521T (=DSM 103086T=ATCC TSD-56T).
A novel thermoacidophilic archaeon, strain HS-1T, was isolated from the Hakone Ohwaku-dani hot spring in Japan. Cells of strain HS-1T in exponential phase were cocci to irregular cocci with a diameter of 0.8–1.5 µm. The strain grew within a temperature range of 50–70 °C (optimal: 65–70 °C), a pH range of pH 1.4–5.5 (optimal: pH 3.0–3.5) and a NaCl concentration range of 0–2.5 % (w/v). The novel strain grew in aerobic conditions but did not grow anaerobically. Moreover, this strain utilized various complex substrates (beef extract, casamino acids, peptone, tryptone and yeast extract) and sugars (arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose, raffinose and lactose) as sole carbon sources. No chemolithoautotrophic growth occurred on elemental sulfur, pyrite, K2S4O6, Na2S2O3 or FeSO4 . 7H2O; however, growth by the oxidation of hydrogen occurred weakly. The core lipids were calditoglycerocaldarchaeol (CGTE) and caldarchaeol (DGTE). The DNA G+C content of the strain was 52.0 mol%, which was remarkably higher than those of known species of the order Sulfolobales (31–46.2 %). The growth of the strain was significantly inhibited in the presence of elemental sulfur. Analyses of 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that HS-1T belonged to the order Sulfolobales ; however, it was distantly related to all known species of the order Sulfolobales (less than 89 % sequence similarity). On the basis of these results, we propose the novel genus, Sulfodiicoccus, in the order Sulfolobales (in the family Sulfolobaceae ). The type species of the genus is Sulfodiicoccus acidiphilus sp. nov., and the type strain of the species is HS-1T (=JCM 31740T=InaCC Ar79T).