An extremely halophilic archaeon, designated strain 5-3T, was isolated from a soil sample of Meighan wetland in Iran. Strain 5-3T was strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and ovoid. Colonies of strain 5-3T were cream-coloured. The isolate showed optimum growth at 4.0 M NaCl, 40 °C and pH 7.0. The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, two unknown phospholipids and three glycolipids (including one that was chromatographically identical to S2-DGD). The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.5 mol%. The closest relative was Natrinema salaciae JCM 17869T with 97.3 % similarity in the orthologous 16S rRNA gene sequence. Analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB′ gene sequences indicated that strain 5-3T is a member of the genus Natrinema in the family Natrialbaceae and forms a distinct cluster. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, a novel species of the family Natrialbaceae , Natrinema soli sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is 5-3T (=IBRC-M 11063T=LMG 29247T).
Two chitin-degrading halophilic archaeal strains, MC-74T and MC-23, were isolated from commercial salt samples. Cells were motile, rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. Colonies were vermillion-pigmented. Strains MC-74T and MC-23 were able to grow with 1.5–5.1 M NaCl (optimum, 2.6–3.1 M) at pH 6.0–10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 20–50 °C (optimum, 40 °C). The orthologous 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 99.8 %, and the closest phylogenetic relative was Salinarchaeum laminariae JCM 17267T with 99.3–99.5 % similarity. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness between the two strains was 93 and 94 % (reciprocally), and those between the two strains and Salinarchaeum laminariae JCM 17267T were 35–36 % and 38–39 % (reciprocally). The polar lipids of both strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and phosphatidylglycerol sulfate. Glycolipids were not detected. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, the strains represent a novel species of the genus Salinarchaeum , for which the name Salinarchaeum chitinilyticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MC-74T (=JCM 19597T=KCTC 4262T), isolated from solar salt produced in France. Strain MC-23, isolated from a commercial solar salt sample produced in China, is an additional strain of the species.