A Gram-stain-negative, obligatory anaerobic spirochete, CHPAT, was isolated from the rectal tissue of a Holstein–Friesian cow. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, CHPAT was most closely related to the human oral spirochete, Treponema parvum , with 88.8 % sequence identity. Further characterisation on the basis of recA gene sequence analysis, cell morphology, pattern of growth and physiological profiling identified marked differences with respect to other recognised species of the genus Treponema . Microscopically, the helical cells measured approximately 1–5 µm long and 0.15–0.25 µm wide, with two to five irregular spirals. Transmission electron microscopy identified four periplasmic flagella in a 2 : 4 : 2 arrangement. CHPAT grew independently of serum, demonstrated no evidence of haemolytic activity and possessed an in vitro enzyme activity profile that is unique amongst validly named species of the genus Treponema , exhibiting C4 esterase, α-galactosidase and β-galactosidase activity. Taken together, these data indicate that CHPAT represents a novel species of the genus Treponema , for which the name Treponema rectale is proposed. The type strain of Treponema rectale is CHPAT (=DSM 103679T=NCTC 13848T).
Three filamentous gliding bacteria from the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Hp g11, Hp g471 and Hp g472, were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis. These organisms had previously been classified as members of the genus Herpetosiphon based on their growth physiology and morphology. However, a taxonomic assignment at the species level had not been carried out. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences now confirmed the close relationship of strain Hp g472 to Herpetosiphon aurantiacus DSM 785T (98.6 % nucleotide identity) and Herpetosiphon geysericola DSM 7119T (97.7 %). The results of DNA–DNA hybridization experiments further implied that strain Hp g472 should be classified as a distinct species. The DNA G+C content of strain Hp g472 was 49.9 mol%. The major quinone was MK-10 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1, C16 : 1 and C16 : 0. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data it was concluded that strain Hp g472 represents a novel species of the genus Herpetosiphon , for which the name Herpetosiphon gulosus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Hp g472T (=DSM 52871T=NBRC 112829T). In contrast to Hp g472T, the strains Hp g11 and Hp g471 exhibited closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99 %) with ‘Herpetosiphon giganteus’ Hp a2. The distinctive genotypic and phenotypic properties of the latter supported the revival of the name as Herpetosiphon giganteus (ex Reichenbach & Golecki, 1975) sp. nov., nom. rev. We propose the previously deposited reference strain DSM 589T=NBRC 112828T as the type strain.