A novel actinobacterium designated TRM 46509T was isolated from a salt water beach at Kalpin, Xinjiang, north-west China. The strain was aerobic and Gram-stain-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 1 % (w/v). The isolate formed sparse aerial mycelium and produced spiral spores at the end of the aerial mycelium on Gauze’s No. 1 medium. The isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and ribose as the major whole-cell sugar. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were C16:0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 69.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TRM 46509T shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.6 % with the closest described species Streptomyces tacrolimicus ATCC 55098T. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 46509T should be designated as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces , for which the name Streptomyces kalpinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 46509T (=CCTCC AA 2015028T=KCTC 39667T).
The taxonomic status of strain M16386T, a nitrogen-fixing but non-nodulating isolate from Morella californica, was established on the basis of a polyphasic approach. The strain grows as branched hyphae, with vesicles and non-motile productive multilocular sporangia. It metabolizes short fatty acids, TCA cycle intermediates and carbohydrates as carbon sources, and fixes nitrogen in the absence of combined nitrogen source in the growth media. Chemotaxonomic traits of strain M16386T are consistent with its affiliation to the genus Frankia . The characteristic diamino acid in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Strain M16386T contains phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycophospholipid and phospholipid as polar lipids; MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6) as the predominant menaquinones; iso-C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω8c as major fatty acids; and galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. Strain M16386T showed 98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest phylogenetic neighbour, Frankia inefficax DSM 45817T. Based on these results, strain M16386T (=DSM 100626T=CECT 9040T) is designated the type strain of a novel species of the genus Frankia , for which the name Frankia asymbiotica sp. nov. is proposed.
Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense . Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium . The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900T and SN 1904T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium . Consequently, strains SN 1900T (40T=CECT 8763T=DSM 43219T) and SN 1904T (2409T=CECT 8766T=DSM 43532T) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as ‘ Mycobacterium acapulsensis’ was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.
A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA8T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce amphotericin. A polyphasic approach was employed to determine the status of strain 1H-SSA8T. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces . The menaquinones detected were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 1H-SSA8T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL B-2714T (99.2 %). Two tree-making algorithms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with Streptomyces himastatinicus ATCC 53653T (98.7 %). The MLSA utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) also supported the position. However, evolutionary distances were higher than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. Moreover, the low level of DNA–DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences allowed the novel isolate to be differentiated from its most closely related strain S. ramulosus NRRL B-2714T and strain S. himastatinicus ATCC 53653T. It is concluded that the organism can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces , for which the name Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA8T (=CGMCC 4.7350T=DSM 103128T).
A novel, non-motile coccoid, Gram-positive and non-endospore forming bacterium, designated Hv14bT, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. It was observed to be catalase positive and oxidase negative and able to hydrolyse starch. MK-8(H2) was identified as the dominant menaquinone and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. The 16S rRNA genes showed the highest 16S rRNA sequence identity with K. polaris DSM 14382T, K. rosea DSM 20447T and K. turfanensis DSM 22143T. Based on the phenotypic and molecular features and DNA–DNA hybridization data, it is concluded that strain Hv14bT is proposed to represent a novel species in the genus Kocuria , Kocuria salina sp. nov., with the type strain Hv14bT=DSM 28714T=CECT 9229T.
A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-BB2C19T, was isolated from the root of black soya bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain was an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive actinomycete that formed extensively branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H0). The major cellular fatty acid profile consisted of iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl C17 : 0 and 10-methyl C18 : 0. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylglycerol and glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 68.2±0.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-BB2C19T should be assigned to the genus Nonomuraea and formed a distinct branch with its closest neighbour Nonomuraea guangzhouensis NEAU-ZJ3T (98.75 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain were also consistent with those of members of the genus Nonomuraea . A combination of DNA–DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-BB2C19T could be clearly differentiated from its closest phylogenetic relative. Thus, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea , for which the name Nonomuraea glycinis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-BB2C19T (=CGMCC 4.7430T=DSM 104838T).
A novel endophytic filamentous bacterium strain A-T 7972T, was isolated from wild orchid Grosourdya appendiculata (Blume) Rchb.f. collected in Thailand. The bacterium developed single non-motile spores with warty surface on substrate mycelia. The taxonomic position was described using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain A-T 7972T belonged to the genus Verrucosispora and shared the highest sequence similarity with V. lutea YIM 013T (98.71 %) and V. gifhornensis DSM 44337T (98.53 %). The values of DNA–DNA relatedness that distinguished this novel strain from its closest species were below 70 %. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were mannose, ribose, glucose and xylose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The predominant fatty acids were branched fatty acids iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The diagnostic phospholipids profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.5 mol%. Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new isolate A-T 7972T (=BCC 50981T=TBRC 6031T=NBRC 112512T) is proposed to be the type strain of novel species, Verrucosispora endophytica sp. nov.
A phthalate esters-degrading bacterial strain, designated QH-11T, was isolated from an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, PR China. The cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, short rods and formed white colonies on trypticase soy agar. This isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and whole-cell hydrolysates contained arabinose and ribose. Diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant polar lipids. According to the results of full-length of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, QH-11T represented a member of the genus Gordonia and showed the highest sequence similarity to Gordonia hydrophobica DSM 44015T (99.2 %), but was distinguishable by a low level of DNA–DNA relatedness (37.8 %). Genome-based comparisons indicated a clear distinction from the top ten most similar type strains (16S rRNA gene sequence) with pairwise average nucleotide identities (ANI) between 74.6 and 83.4 %. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H2), the mycolic acids present had 56 to 62 carbon atoms, and the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 (33.3 %), C17 : 1ω8c (23.4 %) and C18 : 1ω9c (17.9 %). The DNA G+C content was 68.0 mol%. On the basis of the results of DNA–DNA hybridization, ANI and physiological and biochemical tests, it is proposed that QH-11T represents a novel species of the genus Gordonia , for which the name Gordonia phthalatica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is QH-11T (CICC 24107T =KCTC 39933T).
A novel streptomycete, strain 594T, isolated from Brazilian soil collected under cerrado (savanna) vegetation cover is described. Strain 594T produced thermophilic chitinolytic proteases in assays containing feather meal and corn steep liquor as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. The strain produced white to grey aerial mycelium and spiral chains of spiny-surfaced spores on the aerial mycelium and did not produce diffusible pigments. The ll-isomer of diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell wall and menaquinones were predominantly MK-9(H6) (52 %) and MK-9(H8) (30 %) with 6 % MK-9(H4) and slightly less than 1 % MK-9(H2). Polar lipids present were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown phospholipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C14 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it differed from described Streptomyces species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, rpoB, recA and trpB) comparing Streptomyces type strains showed that the MLSA distance of strain 594T to the most closely related species was greater than the 0.007 threshold. The in silico DNA–DNA relatedness between the genome sequence of strain 594T and that of the phylogenetically nearest species was well below the species level recommendation. There was thus multiple evidence justifying the description of this strain as representing a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces odonnellii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 594T (=IMPPG 594T=DSM 41949T=NRRL B-24891T).
A Gram-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped aerobic bacterial strain FLL521T was isolated from iron mine soil. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain FLL521T belonged to genus Nocardioides in family Nocardioidaceae , with the highest sequence identity to Nocardioides panacisoli GSoil 346T (96.3 %). The DNA G+C content of strain FLL521T was 70.3 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4), and the predominant fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C17 : 1ω8c. The polar lipids of strain FLL521T were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and three unidentified phospholipids. Strain FLL521T showed physiological and biochemical differences with the related strains in the Voges-Proskauer test, hydrolysis of l-arginine, utilization of d-mannose, inositol, phenylalanine and acid production from l-arabinose. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain FLL521T represents a novel species of Nocardioides , for which the name Nocardioides immobilis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FLL521T (=KCTC 39931T=CCTCC AB 2017083T).
Strain S27T is a Gram-stain-positive, regular rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, yellow pigmented actinobacterium which was isolated from an aerated laboratory scale fermenter fed with wastes of a yeast factory. The strain was classified as Microbacterium sp. after the analysis of its peptidoglycan revealed a novel B-type structure established as variation B2δ by Hensel in 1984. As the combination of the peptidoglycan amino acids 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (Dab), threonine (Thr), glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala) and glutamic acid (Glu) is in disagreement with the current genus definition of Microbacterium but is typical of several Leucobacter species, the taxonomic status of strain S27T was re-examined by a polyphasic study. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and the occurrence of l-Dab, d-Ala, l-Ala, Gly, l-Thr, d-Glu and lower amounts of l-Glu in the peptidoglycan in combination with the predominating menaquinones MK-11, MK-10 and MK-9, phosphatidylglycerol, and one unknown glycolipid as the major polar lipids (and trace amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown phospholipid), a profile with anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as major fatty acids and the G+C value of 70.1 mol% confirmed the affiliation to the genus Leucobacter and revealed that S27T (=DSM 20621T =CCM 8762T) is the type strain of a new species for which the name Leucobacter weissii sp. nov. is proposed. The availability of new data allows for an emended description of the genus Leucobacter .