Halophilic archaeal strain ZS-54-S2T was isolated from Zhoushan marine solar saltern, China. Cells were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies on an agar plate. Strain ZS-54-S2T was able to grow at 20–50 °C (optimum 35 °C), at 1.7–4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.9 M), at 0.005–1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 5.0–9.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, two glycolipids, which were chromatographically identical to sulfated galactosyl mannosyl galactofuranosyl glucosyl diether and galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether, and an unidentified glycolipid, which was chromatographically identical to one detected in Halobacterium salinarum ATCC 33171T. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB′ gene of strain ZS-54-S2T were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halobacterium noricense JCM 15102T (97.5 % and 90.6 % relatedness, respectively), Halobacterium jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337T (96.9 and 91.2 %), Halobacterium rubrum CGMCC 1.12575T (96.8 and 90.3 %) and Halobacterium salinarum CGMCC 1.1958T (96.5 and 88.4 %). The DNA G+C content of strain ZS-54-S2T was 66.7 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain ZS-54-S2T (=CGMCC 1.12562T=JCM 30038T) represents a new species of Halobacterium , for which the name Halobacterium litoreum sp. nov. is proposed.
Two extremely halophilic archaea, strains YIM 93745T and YIM 93707, were isolated from a saline soil sample collected from Loulan, China. Cells of the two strains were coccus, non-motile and Gram-stain negative. The strains were aerobic and grew at 25–50 °C (optimum, 37 °C), in the presence of 5–35 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 20 %), 0.01–0.1 M Mg2 + (optimum, 0.03 M) and pH 6.0–8.5 (optimum, 7.0–7.5). Cells lysed in distilled water and with 0–5 % NaCl. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, sulfated mannosyl glycosyl diether and two unidentified glycolipids. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence revealed that the two strains were most closely related to Halovivax cerinus IC35T (95.1 and 95.2 % sequence similarities, respectively). The two strains, however, shared highest rpoB’ gene sequence identities with Natrinema pellirubrum JCM 10476T (87.8 and 87.7 % respectively). Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and rpoB’ gene sequences demonstrated a robust clade of the two strains with members of related genera of the family Natrialbaceae . The DNA G+C contents of the two strains were 64.6 and 64.4 mol%, respectively. DNA–DNA relatedness values between them were 95±2 %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic properties suggested that the two strains YIM 93745T and YIM 93707 represent a novel species in a new genus within the family Natrialbaceae , for which the name Saliphagus infecundisoli gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93745T (=KCTC 4228T=CGMCC 1.15824T).