A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated NF2-4-5T, was isolated from a paddy soil in Anseong City, Korea. Cells of strain NF2-4-5T were Gram-staining-positive, motile rods and aerobic. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Paenibacillus and was closely related to Paenibacillus graminis RSA19T (98.7 %), Paenibacillus jilunlii Be17T (98.6 %), Paenibacillus salinicaeni LAM0A28T (98.6 %) and Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T (98.6 %). Growth of strain NF2-4-5T occurs at temperatures of 18–37 °C, at pH 6.0–8.5 and between 0.5% and 2 % NaCl (w/v). The only respiratory quinone was MK-7. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain NF2-4-5T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The main cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The DNA G+C content was 56.36 mol%. The DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness between strain NF2-4-5T and four reference strains, Paenibacillus graminis RSA19T, Paenibacillus jilunlii Be17T, Paenibacillus sonchi X19-5T and Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5T, was 22.0±0.3, 20.1±0.7, 18.3±0.3 and 12.6±0.5 %, respectively. The phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results indicate that the strain NF2-4-5T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus azotifigens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NF2-4-5T (=KACC 18967T=LMG 29963T).
A novel strain of lactic acid bacteria, WiKim39T, was isolated from a scallion kimchi sample consisting of fermented chili peppers and vegetables. The isolate was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain WiKim39T belonged to the genus Lactobacillus , and shared 97.1–98.2 % pair-wise sequence similarities with related type strains, Lactobacillus nodensis , Lactobacillus insicii , Lactobacillus versmoldensis , Lactobacillus tucceti and Lactobacillus furfuricola . The G+C content of the strain based on its genome sequence was 35.3 mol%. The ANI values between WiKim39T and the closest relatives were lower than 80 %. Based on the phenotypic, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses, strain WiKim39T represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus , for which the name Lactobacillus allii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WiKim39T (=KCTC 21077T=JCM 31938T).
A Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, non-endospore-forming bacterial strain (JJ-59T), isolated from a field-grown maize plant in Dunbar, Nebraska in 2014 was studied by a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain JJ-59T was shown to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus , most closely related to the type strains of Paenibacillus aceris (98.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus chondroitinus (97.8 %). For all other type strains of species of the genus Paenibacillus lower 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were obtained. DNA–DNA hybridization values of strain JJ-59T to the type strains of P. aceris and P. chondroitinus were 26 % (reciprocal, 59 %) and 52 % (reciprocal, 59 %), respectively. Chemotaxonomic characteristics such as the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, the major quinone MK-7 and spermidine as the major polyamine were in agreement with the characteristics of the genus Paenibacillus . Strain JJ-59T shared with its next related species P. aceris the major lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminophospholipid, but the presence/absence of certain lipids was clearly distinguishable. Major fatty acids of strain JJ-59T were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the genomic G+C content is 47.2 mol%. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain JJ-59T were clearly different from the most closely related species of the genus Paenibacillus . Thus, strain JJ-59T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus nebraskensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JJ-59T (=DSM 103623T=CIP 111179T=LMG 29764T) as the type strain.
A Gram-stain-variable, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated MJC39T, was isolated from grass silage preserved in Hokkaido, Japan. Growth occurred at 20–42 °C, pH 5.0–7.0 and NaCl concentrations up to 2 % (w/v). The isolated strain MJC39T produced butyric acid in peptone yeast extract medium with glucose. The DNA G+C content of strain MJC39T was 34.4±0.2 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (including C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c). No respiratory quinones were detected. The polar lipids of strain MJC39T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified lipid, one unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified glycolipids, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified aminoglycolipid and one unidentified phosphoaminoglycolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJC39T was a member of the genus Clostridium and is closely related to Clostridium tyrobutyricum JCM 11008T (95.8 % similarity) and Clostridium algifaecis MB9-7T (95.5 % similarity). Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain MJC39T represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium , for which the name Clostridium pabulibutyricum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJC39T (=JCM 31506T=DSM 103944T).
Three strains of Gram-staining-positive, coccus-shaped, lactic acid bacteria, designated as HibF3T, HibF2 and HibF5 were isolated from fresh flowers of hibiscus, and a fourth, DF1T, was isolated from fresh flowers of durian tree, in Penang, Malaysia. Taxonomic characterisation was performed by polyphasic analysis. Sequence similarities of the 16S rRNA gene and the housekeeping rpoA and pheS genes of these strains with their closely-related lactococcal and streptococcal relatives were 92–94, 78 and 81 %, respectively. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that strains DF1T, HibF2, HibF5 and HibF3T were clustered together but were clearly separated from species of the genera Streptococcus and Lactococcus , indicating that they represent members of a novel genus of the family Streptococcaceae . Calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between the genomes of DF1T and HibF3T yielded values of 92.50–92.93 %. ANI values below the cut-off value and distinctive chemotaxonomic characteristics supported the hypothesis that these strains represented two novel species. Major cellular fatty acids in DF1T, HibF2 and HibF5 were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0, while C12 : 0 and C14 : 0 were also dominant, in addition to C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0, in HibF3T. A novel genus is proposed with the name Floricoccus gen. nov. which consists of two species, Floricoccus tropicus sp. nov as the type species, and Floricoccus penangensis sp. nov. The respective type strains are DF1T (=LMG 29833T=JCM 31733T) and HibF3T (=LMG 29831T=DSM 31735T).
A novel anaerobic pectinolytic bacterium (strain 14T) was isolated from human faeces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 14T belonged to the family Ruminococcaceae , but was located separately from known clostridial clusters within the taxon. The closest cultured relative of strain 14T was Acetivibrio cellulolyticus (89.7 % sequence similarity). Strain 14T shared ~99 % sequence similarity with cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences from uncultured bacteria derived from the human gut. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile cocci approximately 0.6 µm in diameter. Strain 14T fermented pectins from citrus peel, apple, and kiwifruit as well as carbohydrates that are constituents of pectins and hemicellulose, such as galacturonic acid, xylose, and arabinose. TEM images of strain 14T, cultured in association with plant tissues, suggested extracellular fibrolytic activity associated with the bacterial cells, forming zones of degradation in the pectin-rich regions of middle lamella. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis supported the differentiation of strain 14T as a novel genus in the family Ruminococcaceae . The name Monoglobus pectinilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 14T (JCM 31914T=DSM 104782T).
Three isolates of a previously reported novel catalase-negative, Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, alpha-haemolytic, Streptococcus species that were associated with meningoencephalitis in naïve weanling mice were further evaluated to confirm their taxonomic status and to determine additional phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed nearly identical intra-species sequence similarity (≥99.9 %), and revealed the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptococcus acidominimus and Streptococcuscuniculi, with 97.0 and 97.5 % sequence similarity, respectively. The rpoB, sodA and recN genes were identical for the three isolates and were 87.6, 85.7 and 82.5 % similar to S. acidominimus and 89.7, 86.2 and 80.7 % similar to S. cuniculi , respectively. In silico DNA–DNA hybridization analyses of mouse isolate 12-5202T against S. acidominimus CCUG 27296T and S. cuniculi CCUG 65085T produced estimated values of 26.4 and 25.7 % relatedness, and the calculated average nucleotide identity values were 81.9 and 81.7, respectively. These data confirm the taxonomic status of 12-5202T as a distinct Streptococcus species, and we formally propose the type strain, Streptococcus azizii 12-5202T (=CCUG 69378T=DSM 103678T). The genome of Streptococcus azizii sp. nov. 12-5202T contains 2062 total genes with a size of 2.34 Mbp, and an average G+C content of 42.76 mol%.
The taxonomic position of a bacterial strain designated T16R-228T, isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample of a tomato plant collected from a farm in Buyeo, Chungcheongnam-do, Republic of Korea, was determined using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of morphological, genetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it was determined to belong to the genus Paenibacillus . It was an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative rod with peritrichous flagella. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, hydroxyl- phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified polar lipid. Menaquiones were MK-7. Predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. DNA G+C content was 56.8 mol%. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the strain formed a clade with P. mucilaginosus VKPM B-7519T, P. edaphicus T7T, P. ehimensis KCTC 3748T, P. koreensis YC300T, P. tianmuensis B27T and P. elgii SD17T, showing the highest sequence similarity with P. mucilaginosus VKPM B-7519T (96.5 %). The polyphasic data supported that strain T16R-228T was clearly distinguished from its closely related species and represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus for which the name Paenibacillus solanacearum is proposed. The type strain is T16R-228T (=KACC 18654T=NBRC 111896T).
Two Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped, bacterial strains (313T and 311) were isolated from banana fruits in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the highest similarity to both strains corresponded to the type strain of Lactobacillus nantensis (99.19 %), followed by Lactobacillus crustorum (98.99 %), Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis (98.59 %) and Lactobacillus farciminis (98.52 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of two housekeeping genes, pheS and rpoA, revealed that these two strains were well separated from the Lactobacillus reference strains. DNA–DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two strains from the above four species. The DNA G+C content of strain 313T was 35.5 mol%. The strains were homofermentative and mainly produced l-lactic acid from glucose. The major cellular fatty acids of strain 313T were 18 : 1ω6c and/or 18 : 1ω7c, 16 : 0, and 19 : 1ω6c and/or 19 : 0 cyclo ω10c. Based on their physiological and genotypic characteristics, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus , for which the name Lactobacillus musae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 313T=NBRC 112868T=BCRC 81020T).
The taxonomic position of four phenotypically closely related strains isolated from faecal samples of yaks (Bos grunniens) collected from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, was determined by a polyphasic approach. The strains were non-spore-forming, non-motile Gram-stain-positive, ovoid cocci, occurring predominantly in pairs and short chains or in irregular clusters. The 16S rRNA gene of strain MN05T was related phylogenetically to those of Enterococcus haemoperoxidus , Enterococcus rotai , Enterococcus quebecensis , Enterococcus plantarum , Enterococcus crotali , Enterococcus moraviensis , Enterococcus silesiacus , Enterococcus caccae , Enterococcus termitis , Enterococcus ureasiticus and Enterococcus ureilyticus , all belonging to the Enterococcus faecalis species group. The sequence similarities of three selected genes of MN05T to those of the type strains of phylogenetically related species were measured, with values within the range of 99.2–99.5 % (16S rRNA gene), 90.0–97.3 % (rpoA) and 80.0–85.3 % (pheS), respectively. The genome of MN05T (3 842 361 bp) contained 4299 genes with a DNA G+C content of 37.5 mol%. A whole-genome phylogenetic tree based on 808 core genes confirmed that MN05T belongs to a distinct lineage, well separated from all recognized species of the Enterococcus faecalis species group. DNA–DNA hybridization in silico showed that MN05T displayed less than 70 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the other 13 species of the Enterococcus faecalis species group. Moreover, their phenotypic features distinguished the four strains from the other species of the Enterococcus faecalis species group. Based upon these data obtained from the polyphasic characterization performed in the present study, a novel species of the genus Enterococcus , Enterococcus wangshanyuanii sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain MN05T (=DSM 104047T=CGMCC 1.15942T).