Here we describe a new species of the genus Streptococcus that was isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis in New Zealand. Strain NZ1587T was Gram-positive, coccus-shaped and arranged as chains, catalase and coagulase negative, γ-haemolytic and negative for Lancefield carbohydrates (A-D, F and G). The 16S rRNA sequence did not match sequences in the NCBI 16S rRNA or GreenGenes databases. Taxonomic classification of strain NZ1587T was investigated using 16S rRNA and core genome phylogeny, genome-wide average nucleotide identity (ANI) and predicted DNA–DNA hybridisation (DDH) analyses. Phylogeny based on 16S rRNA was unable to resolve the taxonomic position of strain NZ1587T, however NZ1587T shared 99.4 % identity at the 16S rRNA level with a distinct branch of S. pseudoporcinus . Importantly, core genome phylogeny demonstrated that NZ1587T grouped amongst the ‘pyogenic’ streptococcal species and formed a distinct branch supported by a 100 % bootstrap value. In addition, average nucleotide identity and inferred DNA–DNA hybridisation analyses showed that NZ1587T represents a novel species. Biochemical profiling using the rapid ID 32 strep identification test enabled differentiation of strain NZ1587T from closely related streptococcal species. In conclusion, strain NZ1587T can be classified as a novel species, and we propose a novel taxon named Streptococcus bovimastitidis sp. nov.; the type strain is NZ1587T. NZ1587T has been deposited in the Culture Collection University of Gothenburg (CCUG 69277T) and the Belgian Co-ordinated Collections of Micro-organisms/LMG (LMG 29747).
A Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated LPB0068T, was isolated from a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in Korea. This isolate was found to share the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus macquariensis subsp. macquariensis DSM 2T (98.1 %) and Paenibacillus macquariensis subsp. defensor JCM 14954T (98.0 %). To establish the genomic relatedness of this isolate to its phylogenetic neighbours, its genome sequence and those of Paenibacillus antarcticus CECT 5836T, P. macquariensis subsp. macquariensis DSM 2T, P. macquariensis subsp. defensor JCM 14954T, and Paenibacillus glacialis DSM 22343T were determined. The low average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridization values exhibited by LPB0068T in relation to the other strains in this analysis revealed that it is distinct from other Paenibacillus species. The genome of strain LPB0068T consists of one chromosome and three circular plasmids, and had a DNA G+C content of 40.0 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified glycolipid, and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C14 : 0, and C16 : 0. Based on genomic, phylogenetic, and phenotypic characteristics, this strain was clearly distinguished from other Paenibacillus species with validly published names and should therefore be classified as a novel species of the genus. The name Paenibacillus crassostreae sp. nov. is proposed, the type strain of which is LPB0068T (=KACC 18694T=JCM 31183T).
A xanthan-degrading bacterium, strain AS7T, was isolated from soil and its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. Strain AS7T was a Gram-stain-variable, spore-forming, motile, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AS7T belongs to the genus Paenibacillus , sharing the highest level of sequence similarity with Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae PALXIL04T (98.0 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. MK-7 was the dominant isoprenoid quinone and the major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. Polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown phospholipids. These chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with the isolate belonging to the genus Paenibacillus . The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 51.0 mol% and the DNA–DNA hybridization value between strain AS7T and P. phyllosphaerae PALXIL04T was only 14.4±2.5 %. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and DNA–DNA relatedness value, strain AS7T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus xanthanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AS7T (=IBRC M 10987T=LMG 29451T).
Two psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes, strains B7-2T and B5T, were isolated from the Zoige Wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains B7-2T and B5T shared high similarity (>99 %) with those of the type strains of the genus Trichococcus, while their digital DNA–DNA hybridization values with each other (49 %) and with the reference type strains (48–23 %) were lower than 70 %, which suggest that they represent two novel species of the genus Trichococcus. Cells of strains B7-2T and B5T were immotile cocci, grew in the temperature range of 4–37 °C (optimum 25 °C) and were alkaliphilic with optimum growth at pH 9.0. The major components of the cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C18 : 0 for strain B7-2T, and C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 0 for strain B5T. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 46.0 and 46.7 mol% for strains B7-2T and B5T, respectively. Based on physiological and genomic characteristics, it is suggested that strains B7-2T and B5T represent two novel species within the genus Trichococcus, for which the names Trichococcus paludicola sp. nov. and Trichococcus alkaliphilus sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are B7-2T (=DSM 104691T=KCTC 33886T) and B5T (=DSM 104692T=KCTC 33885T), respectively.
The aim of this study was to clarify the taxonomic status of the species Bacillus weihenstephanensis . A complete genome sequence for the type strain of B. weihenstephanensis was compared against that of the closely related type strain of Bacillus mycoides . The digital DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between the two type strains was greater than two recognized thresholds for bacterial species delineation, indicating that they should belong to the same genomospecies. The psychrotolerant characteristic and signature sequences of 16S rRNA and cspA genes were incapable of distinguishing B. weihenstephanensis from some non- B. weihenstephanensis strains. Meanwhile, the metabolic, physiological and chemotaxonomic features for the type strain of B. weihenstephanensis were shown to be congruent with those of B. mycoides . On this basis, the taxonomic affiliations of related strains from the Genbank database were determined using multilocus sequence typing and genomic analyses. Therefore, we propose Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mycoides and correction of erroneous species identifications for several strains.
A novel halophilic bacterium, strain GSS13T, capable of growing at salinities of 8–28 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally at 24 %, w/v) was isolated from Yuncheng Saline Lake in China. GSS13T was Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and a non-spore-former. Growth occurred at pH 5.5–8.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10–45 °C (optimum 30 °C). On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequences phylogenetic analyses, GSS13T represents a member of the genus Salibacterium and is closely related to Salibacterium halotolerans S7T, Salibacterium qingdaonense CM1T and Salibacterium halochares MSS4T, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.7, 98.4 and 97.9 %, respectively. The results of DNA–DNA pairing studies revealed that GSS13T displayed 52, 43 and 48 % relatedness to S. halotolerans S7T, S. qingdaonense CM1T and S. halochares MSS4T, respectively. The polar lipids of GSS13 consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol unidentified glycolipids, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 (32.0 %) and anteiso C15 : 0 (26.4 %). The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 52.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, a novel species of the genus Salibacterium is proposed, with the name Salibacterium lacus sp. nov. The type strain is GSS13T (=KCTC 33792T=MCCC 1K00567T).
A rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium, designated FJAT-45347T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil collected from the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang (PR China). Growth was observed at 15–35 °C (optimum 25 °C), in 0 % and 20.0 % NaCl (optimum 8.0 %) and at pH 7.5–12.0 (optimum 8.0), respectively. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The main fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated FJAT-45347T to the genus Bacillus , and it showed the highest sequence similarities to Bacillus clarkii DSM 8720T (96.1 %). The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA–DNA hybridization values between FJAT-45347T and the most closely related species were 68.5 and 26.2 %, respectively, which were lower than the thresholds commonly used to define species (96 and 70 %, respectively), indicating that it represented a member of a different taxon. The DNA G+C content was 40.6 mol%. The phenotypic characters and taxono-genomics study revealed that FJAT-45347T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus populi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-45347T (=DSM 104632T=CCTCC AB 2016257T).
A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, GDSW-R2A3T, was isolated from a downstream water sample collected from the river Ganges, India. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GDSW-R2A3T revealed its affiliation to the family Bacillaceae . Further analysis using a polyphasic approach revealed that strain GDSW-R2A3T was most closely related to the genus Fictibacillus . Analysis of the almost-complete (1488 bp) 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GDSW-R2A3T revealed the highest level of sequence similarity with Fictibacillus phosphorivorans CCM 8426T (98.3 %) and Fictibacillus nanhaiensis KCTC 13712T (98.3 %) followed by Fictibacillus barbaricus DSM 14730T (98.0 %). The digital DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain GDSW-R2A3T and the most closely related taxon, F. phosphorivorans CCM 8426T, were 20.3 and 78.2 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 44.2 mol%. The cell-wall amino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipids present were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, three aminophospholipids, two phospholipids and one unidentified lipid; the major menaquinone was MK-7; iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 were the major fatty acids. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it can be concluded that strain GDSW-R2A3T represents a novel species of the genus Fictibacillus , for which the name Fictibacillus aquaticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GDSW-R2A3T (=VTCC-B-910015T=CCM 8782T).
A Gram-stain-positive strain, designated DT7-02T, was isolated from the surface-sterilized root of Oenotherabiennis (evening primrose) and subjected to taxonomic characterization. Cells of DT7-02T were slender rod-shaped, motile by means of flagella, and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The colonies were circular, pinkish-yellow, opaque, glistering and 1–2 mm in diameter. The strain was moderately thermophilic and halophilic, as growth occurred at 20–44 °C (optimum 40 °C), pH 7–10 (optimum pH 8–9) and in the presence of 0–8 % of NaCl (optimum 4 %) in tryptic soy broth. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain represented a member of the genus Pseudogracilibacillus of the family Bacillaceae , and the sequence similarity was 96.5 % with Pseudogracilibacillus auburnensis P-207T and 95.9 % with Pseudogracilibacillus marinus NIOT-bflm-S4T. Other related taxa were Ornithinibacillus contaminans DSM 22953T and Sinibacillus soli KCTC 33117T, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 95.4 and 94.3 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of DT7-02T were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 35.1 mol%, and the respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The combination of chemotaxonomic properties enabled differentiation of DT7-02T from the other two species of the genus Pseudogracilibacillus . The results of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses demonstrate that strain DT7-02T (=KCTC 33854T=JCM 31192T) merits recognition as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudogracilibacillus , for which the name Pseudogracilibacillus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed.
A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile and facultatively anaerobic strain, designated NC2-31T, was isolated from sediment from the coast of Weihai, PR China. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 7.5 and with 2.0–3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. MK-7 was the major respiratory quinone. Meso-diaminopimelic acid was a diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan. The major polar lipids of NC2-31T were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The genomic DNA G+C content of the strain was 46.3 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10.0 %) of NC2-31T were iso-C15 : 0 (18.9 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (15.8 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) (15.3 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (10.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that NC2-31T should be classified as representing a member of the genus Bacillus . Based on data from the current polyphasic study, NC2-31T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus marinisedimentorum sp. nov. is proposed with type strain NC2-31T (=KCTC 33721T=MCCC 1K01239T).
A bacterial strain designated YYJ7-1T was isolated from farmland soil in China and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain YYJ7-1T were Gram-staining-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming. Growth occurred at 18–42 °C (optimum at 35 °C), at pH 6.0–8.0 (optimum at pH 7.5) and with 0.0–4.0 % NaCl (optimum with 0.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Paenibacillus and showed high levels of sequence similarity with respect to Paenibacillus provencensis 4401170T (98.6 %) and Paenibacillus urinalis 5402403T (98.4 %), while lower 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were observed with all other type strains (97.0 %). However, strain YYJ7-1T showed low DNA–DNA relatedness with P. provencensis 4401170T 48.7±4.5 % (43.6±7.1 % in a reciprocal experiment), and P. urinalis 5402403T 38.9±5.7 % (35.6±6.8 %). The major cellular fatty acids (>10.0 %) of strain YYJ7-1T were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The polar lipid profile consisted of phospholipids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The DNA G+C content was 39.4 mol%. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain YYJ7-1T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus shunpengii sp. nov. is proposed, with YYJ7-1T (=ACCC 19965T=KCTC 33849T) as the type strain.
An aerobic, Gram-staining-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile bacterial strain, designated CJ6T, was isolated from a tidal flat on Ganghwa Island, South Korea. The isolate was characterized based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Strain CJ6T grew optimally on R2A agar media at 30 °C and pH 7. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain CJ6T belonged to the genus Paenibacillus , displaying the highest sequence similarity to Paenibacillus vulneris CCUG 53270T (97.0 %) and clearly defined strain CJ6T as a novel species within the genus. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.9 mol%. The major polar lipid contents of strain CJ6T were phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified glycolipids. MK-7 was detected as the major respiratory quinone. The dominant fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. Analyses of phylogenetic, phenotypic, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics indicated that strain CJ6T was distinguishable from its closely related type strains. Therefore, strain CJ6T represents a novel species in the genus Paenibacillus , for which name Paenibacillus limicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CJ6T (=KACC 19303T=JCM 32079T).
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (FH042T) was isolated from a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms. Cells were stained Gram-positive, straight to gently curved rods with polar flagella. The strain was asaccharolytic. The strain fermented amino acids (l-arginine, l-lysine and l-serine) as growth substrates and produced acetate and butyrate. The optimum temperature for growth was 30 °C and the optimum pH was 6.1–6.8. Oxidase, catalase and nitrate-reducing activities were negative. Hydrogen sulfide was produced. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain FH042T was 44.7±0.2 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c DMA, C17 : 2/C17 : 1ω9c (as summed feature), C16 : 0 DMA and C14 : 0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as a diagnostic amino acid. The most closely related described species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was Anaerovorax odorimutans in the family XIII Incertae Sedis in the order Clostridiales of the class Clostridia with sequence similarity of 95.1 %. Based on the distinct differences in phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics between strain FH042T and related species, Aminipila butyrica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the strain. Type strain is FH042T (=JCM 31555T=DSM 103574T).