Two novel strains, J116-2T and J116-1, were isolated from forest soil and were taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. Both strains were yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacteria. The strains were non-sporulating, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Strains J116-2T and J116-1 were able to grow at 20–32 °C, pH 6.0–8.5, and 0–0.5 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strains J116-2T and J116-1 formed a distinct lineage within the family Chitinophagaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and were closely related to genera Taibaiella (89.86–89.30 % sequence similarity), Falvihumibacter (89.20–89.06 %), Filimonas (89.06 %) and Chitinophaga (89.01–88.77 %). The pairwise sequence similarity between strains J116-2T and J116-1 was found to be 99.86 %. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent in both strains. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7); the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine; the predominant polyamine was homospermidine; and the major fatty acids were C15 : 0iso, C15 : 1iso G and C17 : 0iso 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content values of strains J116-2T and J116-1 were 51.1 and 50.9 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analysis, strain J116-2T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Chitinophagaceae , for which the name Nemorella caseinilytica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Nemorella caseinilytica is J116-2T (=KEMB 9005–550T=KACC 19168T=NBRC 112827T).
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated TX0405T, was isolated from an automotive air conditioning system. Colonies were circular, convex, semi-translucent, smooth and yellow. The strain grew at 20–28°C (optimum, 28°C), at pH 6.0–7.5 (optimum, pH 6.5) and in the presence of 0–1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain was grouped with the members of the genus Spirosoma , with the sequence similarities of 93.0 and 92.3 % with Spirosoma panaciterrae DSM 21099T and Spirosoma swuense JBM2-3T, respectively. The major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) (33.2 %), C16 : 1ω5c (25.4 %), iso-C15 : 0 (15.0 %), C16 : 0 (6.5 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (6.2 %). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified aminophospholipids and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 51.9 mol%. On the basis of the data presented, strain TX0405T represents a novel species of the genus Spirosoma , for which the name Spirosoma metallilatum sp. nov. (=KACC 19012T=NBRC 112493T) is proposed.
A Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellated, gliding, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive bacterium, designated SE14T, was isolated from soil on King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Strain SE14T grew at 4–25 °C (optimum, 20 °C), at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0–7.5) and with 0–3.0 % NaCl (optimum, 1.0–1.5 %), and could not produce flexirubin-type pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the the isolate belonged to the genus Flavobacterium . Strain SE14T had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Flavobacterium antarcticum , F. tegetincola and F. degerlachei with 95.8, 95.5 and 95.2 %, respectively. The strain SE14T consisted of a clade with Flavobacterium noncentrifugens (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity 94.9 %) and F. qiangtangense (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity 94.2 %) and simultaneously formed a distinct phyletic lineage in the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree. Polar lipids of the strain included phosphatidylethanolamine and four unidentified aminolipids. Strain SE14T contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and a mixture of iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c as the main fatty acids, and the only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.3 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic study revealed that strain SE14T belongs to a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium , and the name Flavobacterium phocarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SE14T (=CCTCC AB 2017225T=KCTC 52612T).
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, aerobic bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample obtained from a wild ass sanctuary in Gujarat, India. The strain designated JC490T was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and sequence comparison data indicated that strain JC490T was a member of the genus Chryseobacterium and was closely related to Chryseobacterium jeonii AT1047T (96.4 %) and with other members of the genus Chryseobacterium (<96.3 %). The DNA G+C content of strain JC490T was 34 mol%. Strain JC490T had phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and five unidentified polar lipids. Menaquinone-6 was the only respiratory quinone found. Iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH were the major fatty acids of strain JC490T. On the basis of physiological, genotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses, it is concluded that strain JC490T constitutes a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium , for which the name Chryseobacterium salipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC490T (=KCTC 52835T=LMG 30048T).
A gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped (1.3–1.9×0.3–0.5 µm) and non-motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC09412T, was isolated from seaweed collected at Yeonggwang County, South Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that strain MEBiC09412T shared high sequence similarity with Marinirhabdus gelatinilytica NH83T (95.4 %). Growth was observed at 17–38 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 4.0–8.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0.5–6.0 % (w/v; optimum 2.5 %) NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (27.4 %), iso-C15 : 1 G (9.6 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (14.6 %), iso-C16 : 0 (6.2 %), iso-C17 : 0 3OH (13.2 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c; 7.4 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 43.1 mol%, while the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. Several phenotypic characteristics such as indole production, the oxidizing patterns of several carbohydrtaes (of glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, mannose etc.) and organic acids, and the enzyme activities of α-chymotrypsin and α-glucosidase differentiated strain MEBiC09412T from M. gelatinilytica NH83T. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic data, strain MEBiC09412T should be classified as a novel species of the genus Marinirhabdus with the suggested name Marinirhabdus citrea sp. nov. The type strain is MEBiC09412T (=KCCM 43216T=JCM 31588T).
A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacillus, strain 08MAS2615T, was isolated from the flesh of a pigeon specimen collected in Ma’anshan, Anhui province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain 08MAS2615T belonged to the genus Proteus , and formed an independent branch which was clearly separated from the other six known species of Proteus . Strain 08MAS2615T was more closely related to Proteus vulgaris ATCC 29905T and Proteus penneri NCTC 12737T than other Proteus species. Similar independent phylogenetic results were obtained using rpoB gene sequence analysis, whereas strain 08MAS2615T clustered near the species of Proteus cibarius JS9T and Proteus terrae N5/687T. Furthermore, the genome-wide core-single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic tree confirmed that strain 08MAS2615T formed a monophyletic and robust clade. Based on whole-genome sequences, the range of in silico DNA–DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity between strain 08MAS2615T and the six Proteus species were 25.5–48.8 % and 82.8–92.9 %, respectively, less than the proposed cutoff level for species delineation, i.e. 70 and 95 %. In addition, the major cellular fatty acid profile of strain 08MAS2615T was C14 : 0 (12.4 %), C16 : 0 (23.8 %), C17 : 0cyclo (14.4 %), summed feature 2 (C16 : 1iso I/C14 : 0 3-OH) (11.0 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/16 : 1ω6c) (18.5 %) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c) (18.6 %). On the basis of these results, strain 08MAS2615T represents a novel species of the genus Proteus , for which the name Proteus columbae sp. nov. is proposed with strain 08MAS2615T (=DSM 104686T=CGMCC 1.15982T) designated as the species type strain.
A Gram-stain-negative, motile by gliding, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated 15J6-3T6T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Jeju Island, South Korea, and characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 15J6-3T6T belongs to the family Cytophagaceae and is related to Larkinella harenae 15J9-9T (93.9 % similarity), Larkinella arboricola Z0532T (93.6 %), Larkinella bovis M2TB15T (93.3 %), and Larkinella insperata LMG 22510T (93.3 %). The DNA G+C content of strain 15J6-3T6T was 50.6 mol%. The detection of phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified polar lipid as major polar lipids, menaquinone-7 as the predominant quinone, and C16 : 1ω5c, iso-C15 : 0, and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids also supports the affiliation of the isolate to the genus Larkinella . Based on its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, we propose that strain 15J6-3T6T should be classified in the genus Larkinella as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Larkinella knui sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 15J6-3T6T (=KCTC 42998T=JCM 31989T)
A cream-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Brt-FT, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Strain Brt-FT was able to grow from 15 to 45 °C, pH 6.5–10.5 and 0–4.5 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. This strain was taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain Brt-FT represented a member of the genus Sphingobacterium and shared highest sequence similarity with Sphingobacterium chuzhouense DH-5T (99.4 %); Sphingobacterium gobiense H7T (95.7 %) and Sphingobacterium arenae H-12T (94.3 %). The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7, the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine and the predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0, and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 43.4 mol%. The DNA–DNA relatedness value between strain Brt-FT and S. chuzhouense KCTC 42746T was 35.7 %, which falls below the threshold value of 70 % for the strain to be considered as novel. The morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguished this strain from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Thus, strain Brt-FT represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium , for which the name Sphingobacterium terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Brt-FT (=KEMB 9005-691T=KACC 19392T=JCM 32159T).
A Gram-staining-negative bacterial strain, designated CJ42T, was isolated from ginseng soil in Anseong, Republic of Korea. Cells were rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, aerobic and devoid of flagella but showed gliding motility. Strain CJ42T grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0 in the absence of NaCl on tryptic soy agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain CJ42T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae and was most closely related to Flavobacterium tistrianum KCTC 42679T (97.3 % similarity). Flexirubin-type pigments were produced. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown aminolipid and two unknown lipids. The major fatty acids of strain CJ42T were iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 30.7 mol%. Based on the polyphasic analyses, strain CJ42T represents a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium foetidum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CJ42T (=KACC 19302=JCM 32085).
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 10Alg 139T, was isolated from the Pacific red alga Ahnfeltiato buchiensis. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain belonged to the genus Polaribacter , a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae , the phylum Bacteroidetes , with highest sequence similarity to Polaribacter butkevichii KMM 3938T (99.3 %) and 93.3–98.6 % to other recognized Polaribacter species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 10Alg 139T were iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15:0, iso-C13 : 0, C15 : 0 and C15 : 1ω6c. The polar lipid profile consisted of the major lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified lipids. The main respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6. The DNA G+C content of the type strain is 31.8 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Polaribacter were readily distinguished based on a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the isolate from alga represents a novel species of the genus Polaribacter , for which the name Polaribacter staleyi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10Alg 139T (=KCTC 52773T=KMM 6729T).
A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively aerobic, motile-by-gliding, non-flagellated and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated YSM-43T, was isolated from a tidal flat in Yeosu on the South Sea in the Republic of Korea. Strain YSM-43T grew optimally at 30 °C and in the presence of 1.0–2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YSM-43T fell within the clade comprising type strains of Flavobacterium species, clustering with the type strains of Flavobacterium jejuense and Flavobacterium jumunjinense . It exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.20 and 97.15 % to the type strains of F. jejuense and F. jumunjinense , respectively, and of less than 96.59 % to the type strains of the other Flavobacterium species. Strain YSM-43T contained menaquinone-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain YSM-43T was 29.8 mol% and its DNA–DNA relatedness values with type strains of F. jejuense and F. jumunjinense were 13 and 11 %, respectively. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic data, revealed that strain YSM-43T is separate from other recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium . On the basis of the data presented, strain YSM-43T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium sediminilitoris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YSM-43T (=KACC 19435T=KCTC 62142T=NBRC 113020T).
A novel Gram-negative, rod shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain YK2T, was isolated from yak milk from Leh, India. The strain was positive for oxidase- and catalase-activities and negative for starch hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, citrate utilization, urease, lysine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase activities. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (summed feature 3). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid and six unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 38.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain YK2T was a member of the genus Sphingobacterium and closely related to Sphingobacterium alimentarium and Sphingobacterium composti with pair-wise sequence similarity of 98.3 and 97.9 %, respectively. The sequence similarity to other members of the genus Sphingobacterium was between 92.6 to 96.3 %. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YK2T clustered with Sphingobacterium alimentarium and together clustered with Sphingobacterium composti . DNA–DNA hybridization of strain YK2T with Sphingobacterium alimentarium WCC 4521T and Sphingobacterium composti T5-12T showed a relatedness of only 38 and 54 %, respectively. Based on the phenotypic characteristics and on phylogenetic inference, it appears that strain YK2T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium , for which the name Sphingobacterium bovisgrunnientis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Sphingobacterium bovisgrunnientis sp. nov. is YK2T (=MTCC 12631T=KCTC 52685T=JCM 31951T).
A red-pigmented, Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated NY03-3-30T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Inexpressible Island, Northern Victoria Land of the Antarctic Ross Orogen, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Growth occurred at 4–28 °C (optimum 20 °C) and at pH 6.0–9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NY03-3-30T belonged to the genus Hymenobacter in the family Cytophagaceae . 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain NY03-3-30T and the type strains of Hymenobacter species with validly published names ranged from 92.7 to 96.2 %. Strain NY03-3-30T contained summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, C16 : 1 ω5c, anteiso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1-I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1-B) as major cellular fatty acids, MK-7 as the respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine as the main polar lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain NY03-3-30T was 59.4 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain NY03-3-30T is considered to represent a novel species of genus Hymenobacter , for which the name Hymenobacter rubripertinctus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NY03-3-30T (=CCTCC AB 2017095T=KCTC 62163T).