A Gram-stain-negative, oval-shaped and light pink pigmented bacterium, designated XAAS-2T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Tamarix ramosissima. The sole respiratory quinone of the type strain XAAS-2T was MK-7, and the principal cellular fatty acids were summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and iso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain XAAS-2T belonged to the genus Pontibacter within the family Cytophagaceae with sequence similarities of 93.9–97.1 % to other type species of the genus Pontibacter and to Pontibacter xinjiangensis CCTCC AB 207200T as the closest neighbour. The DNA G+C content of strain XAAS-2T was 50.6 mol%. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness of XAAS-2T and P. xinjiangensis CCTCC AB 207200T was 47.5 % (sd=3.27). Phenotypic and genotypic data suggested that strain XAAS-2T represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacter , for which the name Pontibacter brevis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain XAAS-2T (=CCTCC AB 2016135T=JCM 31443T).
A Gram-stain-negative, yellow, facultatively-anaerobic, short, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated PK15T, was isolated from freshwater. Growth was observed at 4–40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 6–9 (optimum, 8), and in the presence of 0–0.8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.4 %). Strain PK15T exhibited both catalase and oxidase activities and was able to reduce nitrate. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain PK15T was shown to belong to the genus Flavobacterium with close similarities to Flavobacterium palustre S44T (97.9 %) and Flavobacterium seoulense EM1321T (97.7 %). Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone, while the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.5 (±0.9) mol%. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids (≥10 %) were anteiso-C15 : 0 (17.3 %), a summed feature comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c (15.1 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (10.0 %). Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain PK15T to the genus Flavobacterium . The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain PK15T from strains of closely related species. It was, therefore, evident that PK15T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium commune sp. nov. is proposed with strain PK15T (=KCTC 52562T=JCM 32115T) as the type strain. Based on the results of the chemotaxonomic characterization in the present study, an emended description of Flavobacterium seoulense is also proposed.
A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain BXN5-31T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain BXN5-31T grew at 18–37 °C and at pH 6.0–8.0 on R2A medium. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain BXN5-31T was shown to belong to the genus Mucilaginibacter and was closely related to Mucilaginibacter soyangensis HME6664T, Mucilaginibacter ximonensis XM-003T and Mucilaginibacter puniceus WS71T. The DNA G+C content was 43.6 %. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain BXN5-31T and three reference strains ( M. soyangensis HME6664T, M. ximonensis XM-003T and M. puniceus WS71T) were 9.4±1.9, 8.2±1.3 and 5.7±0.7 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain BXN5-31T to the genus Mucilaginibacter . Moreover, the physiological and biochemical results and low level of DNA–DNA relatedness allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain BXN5-31T from recognized species of the genus Mucilaginibacter . The isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Mucilaginibacter panaciglaebae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BXN5-31T (=KACC 14957T=JCM 17085T).
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated JDTF-31T, was isolated from a tidal flat in Jindo, a South Korean island. Strain JDTF-31T grew optimally at 25 °C and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain JDTF-31T fell within the cluster comprising the type strains of Tenacibaculum species, joining the type strain of Tenacibaculum soleae . The novel strain exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.3, 97.8 and 97.1 % to the type strains of T. soleae , Tenacibaculum haliotis and Tenacibaculum ovolyticum, respectively, and of 94.2–96.8 % to the type strains of the other Tenacibaculum species. Strain JDTF-31T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain JDTF-31T were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified lipid and one unidentified aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content of strain JDTF-31T was 31.3 mol% and its DNA–DNA relatedness values with the type strains of T. soleae , T. haliotis and T. ovolyticum were 16–27 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with its phylogenetic and genetic data, revealed that strain JDTF-31T is separated from other recognized species of the genus Tenacibaculum . On the basis of the data presented, strain JDTF-31T represents a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum , for which the name Tenacibaculum insulae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JDTF-31T (=KCTC 52749T=NBRC 112783T).
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-gliding, oval to rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated JB01H24T, belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae , was isolated from marine surface sediment collected from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Strain JB01H24T grew at 4–40 °C (optimum 25–30 °C), pH 7.0–9.0 (optimum 7.5–8.0), and in the presence of 0–8 % NaCl (optimum 3 %, w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JB01H24T formed an independent linkage within the family Flavobacteriaceae and was closely related with the genus Gillisia . Strain JB01H24T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 95.3–91.5 % and 94.9–94.0 % to the type strains of the genera Gillisia and Salinimicrobium , respectively. The major fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c and/or C16 : 1 ω7c), anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, seven unidentified lipids, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified aminophospholipid. Strain JB01H24T contained menaquinone-6 as the only ubiquinone. The DNA G+C content was 42.4 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strain JB01H24T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus within the family Flavobacteriaceae , for which the name Antarcticibacterium flavum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Antarcticibacterium flavum is JB01H24T (=GDMCC 1.1229T=KCTC 52984T).
A non-motile, pink-coloured and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain POA9T, was isolated from a wastewater treatment facility, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω5c, iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and anteiso-C15 : 0. The strain contained MK-7 as the only isoprenoid quinone, phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid and sym-homospermidine as the major polyamine. The DNA G+C content was 57 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain POA9T forms a distinct evolutionary lineage within the radiation enclosing the members of the genus Hymenobacter , sharing the highest similarity with Hymenobacter actinosclerus CCUG 39621T (95.5 % sequence similarity) followed by Hymenobacter seoulensis 16F7GT (95.5 %), Hymenobacter tibetensis XTM003T (95.4 %), Hymenobacter rutilus K2-33028T (95.4 %) and Hymenobacter psychrotolerans Tibet-IIU11T (94.9 %). A number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished strain POA9T from the related members of the genus Hymenobacter . On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, a novel species, Hymenobacter defluvii sp. nov., is proposed for strain POA9T (=KCTC 52270T=JCM 31658T).
During a study of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, a yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Brt-MT, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Biratnagar, Morang, Nepal. Strain Brt-MT was able to grow at 15–45 °C, pH 5.0–9.0 and 0–1 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. The strain was characterized by multiple taxonomic approaches. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain Brt-MT belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and shared highest sequence similarity with Flavobacterium cloacae wh15T (95.69 %) and Flavobacterium anatoliense MK3T (94.91 %). The only respiratory quinone was MK-6; the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine; and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or C16 : 010-methyl), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The DNA G+C content was 37.2 mol%. The morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguished this strain from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Thus, strain Brt-MT represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium naphthae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Brt-MT (=KEMB 9005-692T=KACC 19393T=JCM 32171T).
A new member of the Flavobacteriales was isolated from the surface of a stone collected on the German North Sea shore. The bacterium, strain ANORD5T, is a mesophilic, chemoheterotrophic aerobic, typical marine bacterium. Optimal growth was observed at 20–30 °C, pH 7.0–8.5 and 1–2 % sea salt. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed a distant relationship with the representatives of the Cryomorphaceae , with less than 90 % sequence similarity. Strain ANORD5T forms a cluster together with Owenweeksia hongkongensis UST20020801T (89.9 %), Cryomorpha ignava 1-22T (87.9 %), Luteibaculum oceani CC-AMWY-103BT (88.1 %) and Phaeocystidibacter luteus PG2S01T (87.3 %). Strain ANORD5T has a low DNA G+C content (31 mol%). Based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic data, strain ANORD5T is considered a type strain of a new species and a new genus of the family Cryomorphaceae for which the name Vicingus serpentipes is proposed. The type strain is ANORD5T (=NCIMB 15042T=DSM 103558T=MTCC 12686T).
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-coloured, motile by gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated R17H11T, was isolated from surface sediment collected from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Growth optimally occurred at 25–30 °C, at pH 7.0–7.5 and in the presence of 3 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R17H11T clustered together with Gramella flava JLT2011T and fell within the genus Gramella . Strain R17H11T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene similarities (96.1 and 96.0 %) with the type strains of Gramella forsetii and G. flava , and 92.6–95.5 % similarities with those of other known Gramella species. Strain R17H11T contained menaquinone-6 as the only isoprenoid quinone. The major fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 3 (17.5 %, comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 (14.0 %), summed feature 9 (11.8 %, comprising 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C17 : 1 ω9c), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (11.8 %), iso-C16 : 0 (7.4 %), C17 : 1 ω6c (6.9 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (5.1 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified lipids, an unidentified aminolipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content of strain R17H11T was 38.6 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain R17H11T represents a novel species in the genus Gramella , for which the name Gramella antarctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the novel species is R17H11T (=GDMCC 1.1208T=KCTC 52925T).
A pink-coloured bacterial strain, TAPP7T, was isolated from a freshwater creek in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TAPP7T belonged to the genus Mucilaginibacter and showed highest similarity with Mucilaginibacter ginsengisoli B4Y-8T (97.6 %) and Mucilaginibacter carri PR0008KT (96.9 %). Cells of strain TAPP7T were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating and short-rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 10–30 °C (optimum, 15–20 °C), at pH 4–8 (optimum, pH 6) and with 0–1 % NaCl (optimum, 0.5 %). The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and iso-C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine and several uncharacterized aminophospholipids and phospholipids. The major polyamine was homospermidine. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.6 mol%. The DNA–DNA relatedness of strain TAPP7T with respect to Mucilaginibacter ginsengisoli B4Y-8T was less than 35 %. On the basis of the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain TAPP7T should be classified as a novel species, for which the name Mucilaginibacter amnicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TAPP7T (=BCRC 80976T=LMG 29556T=KCTC 52238T).
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, bacterium, C62-2T, was isolated from activated sludge in Fujian Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it was closely related to Pedobacter duraquae WB 2.1-25T (97.92 %), Pedobacter bambusae THG-G118T (97.40 %), Pedobacter cryoconitis A37T (97.37 %) and Pedobacter caeni LMG 22862T (97.3 %). Cells grew aerobically at 20–37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 5.0–8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0–3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain C62-2T contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c, C16 : 1 ω7c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 43.2 mol% (Tm ) and DNA–DNA reassociation values were 35.4 % between strain C62-2T and P. duraquae WB 2.1-25T. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with the closely related species and DNA–DNA relatedness values, it was concluded that strain C62-2T represents a novel species within the genus Pedobacter , for which the name Pedobacter quisquiliarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C62-2T (=CGMCC 1.15343T=NBRC 111767T).