A novel Gram-stain-positive bacterial strain, designated as K13T, was isolated from compost and characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain showed highest similarity (93.8 %) to Paenibacillus nanensis MX2-3T. Cells of strain K13T were aerobic, motile rods. The major fatty acids were anteiso C15 : 0 (34.4 %), iso C16 : 0 (17.3 %) and C16 : 0 (10.0 %). The major menaquinone was MK-7, the polar lipid profile included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and an aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 52.3 %. Based on phenotypic, including chemotaxonomic characteristics and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, it was concluded that strain K13T represents a novel genus, for which the name Xylanibacillus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type species of the genus is Xylanibacillus composti, the type strain of which is strain K13T (=DSM 29793T=NCAIM B.02605T).
A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus , designated strain Bb 2-3T, was isolated from bee bread of Apis cerana collected from a hive in Kunming, China. The strain was regular rod-shaped. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 6.5 with 5.0 g l−1 NaCl. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 iso. Respiratory quinones were not detected. Seven glycolipids, three lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected. The peptidoglycan type A4α l-Lys-d-Asp was determined. Strain Bb 2-3T was closely related to Lactobacillus bombicola DSM 28793T, Lactobacillus apis LMG 26964T and Lactobacillus helsingborgensis DSM 26265T, with 97.8, 97.6 and 97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain Bb 2-3T was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus . The average nucleotide identity between strain Bb 2-3T and the type strains of closely related species was lower than the 95–96 % threshold value for delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Bb 2-3T was 37.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain Bb 2-3T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus , for which we propose the name Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov. The type strain is Bb 2-3T (=DSM 102188T=ACCC 19955T).
A taxonomic study was performed on strain LCB256T, which was isolated from a saline-alkali soil sample taken from northwestern China. Cells of strain LCB256T were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped and grew at 3–17 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10–15 %), 10–52 °C (optimum 25–30 °C) and pH 7.0–9.0 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LCB256T was most closely related to the two genera of Ornithinibacillus and Oceanobacillus , showing highest sequence similarity to Oceanobacillus limi KCTC 13823T (97.8 %) and Ornithinibacillus bavariensis WSBC 24001T (97.2 %). The peptidoglycan amino acid type was found to be A4β and the major respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-7. The polar lipid profile of strain LCB256T contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified aminolipids. The dominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 39.3 mol%. DNA–DNA relatedness values between strain LCB256T and Ornithinibacillus halophilus KCTC 13822T and Oceanobacillus limi KCTC 13823T were 46.2 and 34.8 %, respectively. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic study, a novel species of the genus Ornithinibacillus , Ornithinibacillus salinisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LCB256T (=CGMCC 1.15809T=KCTC 33862T).
A strictly aerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK74T, was isolated from a water sample collected from Sambhar salt lake, Rajasthan, India. Colonies were circular, 1.2 mm in diameter, shiny, smooth, whitish and convex with an entire margin after 48 h growth at 37 °C with pH 9.0. Growth occurred at 25–42 °C, 0–4 % (w/v) NaCl and at a pH of 7–12. Strain AK74T was positive for aesculinase, caseinase, lipase activities and negative for oxidase, catalase, amylase, cellulase, DNase, gelatinase and urease activities. The fatty acids were dominated by branched iso-, anteiso- and saturated fatty acids with a high abundance of iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 and the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The DNA G+C content of strain AK74T was 51.6 mol%. A blast sequence similarity search based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that Bacillus niabensis , Bacillus idriensis and Bacillus halosaccharovorans were the nearest phylogenetic neighbours, with a pair-wise sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.6 and 96.5%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain AK74T clustered with Bacillus mangrove and together clustered with Bacillus idriensis and Bacillus indicus . Based on its phenotypic characteristics and on phylogenetic inference, strain AK74T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus lacus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AK74T (=MTCC 12638T=KCTC 33946T=JCM 32185T).
A novel strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain BA2-13T, was isolated from a thermophilic industrial-scale biogas plant. Cells were rod-shaped and Gram-stain-positive. Growth occurred at temperatures of 25 to 50 °C and between pH 6.3 and 9.5. Strain BA2-13T produced indole. Cell growth was stimulated by yeast extract, peptone, meat extract, a mixture of 20 amino acids, glucose, pyruvate and ribose. When grown on peptone and yeast extract, the main fermentation products were acetic acid, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0 3-OH. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipids, phospholipids and phosphatidylgycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence analysis placed strain BA2-13T within the order Clostridiales showing closest affiliation with Proteiniborus ethanoligenes with 95.9 % sequence identity. Physiological, genotypic and chemotaxonomic differences of strain BA2-13T from P. ethanoligenes support the description of a new species within the genus Proteiniborus for which we suggest the name Proteiniborus indolifex sp. nov. (type strain BA2-13T=DSM 103060T=LMG 29818T).
Two Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic bacilli, designated as strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T, were isolated from the hydrothermal sediments of Manus Basin in the western Pacific Ocean. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T were most closely related to Bacillus alveayuensis (97.0 and 97.2 % identity, respectively). The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity between strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T was 97.4 %. The identities between strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T and other closely related organisms were below 97.0 %. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T were 43.4 and 47.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in both strains was menaquinone-7. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological analyses suggested that strains Ma50-5T and Ma50-6T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the names Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-5T=KCTC 33881T=CCTCC AB 2017020T) and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-6T=KCTC 33882T=CCTCC AB 2017019T), respectively, are proposed.
A bacterial strain isolated from a food processing drainage system in Costa Rica fulfilled the criteria as belonging to the genus Listeria , but could not be assigned to any of the known species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Listeria floridensis (98.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on Listeria core genomes placed the novel taxon within the Listeria fleishmannii, L. floridensis and Listeria aquatica clade ( Listeria sensu lato). Whole-genome sequence analyses based on the average nucleotide blast identity (ANI<80 %) indicated that this isolate belonged to a novel species. Results of pairwise amino acid identity (AAI>70 %) and percentage of conserved proteins (POCP>68 %) with currently known Listeria species, as well as of biochemical characterization, confirmed that the strain constituted a novel species within the genus Listeria . The name Listeria costaricensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species, and is represented by the type strain CLIP 2016/00682T (=CIP 111400T=DSM 105474T).
An anaerobic sulfate-reducing micro-organism, strain 3408-1T, was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in Kamchatka peninsula (Russia). The cells were spore-forming rods with a Gram-positive type of cell wall. The new isolate was a moderately thermoacidophilic anaerobe able to grow either by sulfate or thiosulfate respiration with H2 or formate as substrates, or by fermenting yeast extract, maltose, sucrose, glucose and pyruvate. The fermentation products were acetate, CO2 and H2. The pH range for growth was 2.9–6.5, with an optimum at 4.5. The temperature range for growth was 42–70 °C, with an optimum at 55 °C. The G+C content of DNA was 58 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain 3408-1T belongs to the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae , order Thermoanaerobacterales and was distantly related to the species of the genus Ammonifex (93–94 % sequence similarity). On the basis of physiological properties and results of phylogenetic analysis, strain 3408-1T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfothermobacter acidiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3408-1T (=DSM 105356T=VKM B-3183T).
A Gram-stain-variable, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and spore-forming bacterial strain, designated CJ11T, was isolated from a tidal flat sediment sample from Ganghwa-do, Republic of Korea. Strain CJ11T grew optimally on R2A at 30 °C and pH 7.0. Sequencing results of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain CJ11T possesses two copies of the 16S rRNA gene varying at five nucleotide positions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CJ11T belonged to the genus Paenibacillus within the family Paenibacillaceae and was most closely related to Paenibacillus lacus KCTC 33691T (99.36–99.15 % similarity). DNA–DNA relatedness levels of strain CJ11T was 41.7 % (reciprocal, 57.8 %) to P. lacus KCTC 33691T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 51.0 mol%. Strain CJ11Tcontained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids, an unidentified glycolipid and several unidentified lipids. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic study, strain CJ11T represents a novel species in the genus Paenibacillus , for which the name Paenibacillus translucens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CJ11T (=KACC 19304T=JCM 32080T).