An obligately aerobic extremely halophilic alkalithermophilic archaeon, strain JW/NM-HA 15T, was isolated from the sediments of Wadi An Natrun in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and rpoB′ gene sequences indicated that it belongs to the family Natrialbaceae of the order Natrialbales . The closest relatives were Natronolimnobius baerhuensis IHC-005T and Natronolimnobius innermongolicus N-1311T (95.3 and 94.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Genome relatedness between strain JW/NM-HA 15T and its neighbours was evaluated using average nucleotide identity, digital DNA–DNA hybridization and average amino acid identity with the values of 75.7–85.0, 18.1–20.0, and 70.2–71.0%, respectively. Cells were obligately aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative and chemo-organotrophic. The strain grew in the presence of 2.57 M to saturating Na+ (optimum 3.25–4.60 M Na+), at pH55 °C 7.5–10.5 (optimum pH55 °C 9.0–9.5), and at 30–56 °C (optimum 52 °C). The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, methylated phosphatidylglycerolphosphate and two phospholipids. The complete genome size of strain JW/NM-HA 15T is approximately 3.93 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 64.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic features, genomic relatedness, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain JW/NM-HA 15T was thus considered to represent a novel species within the genus Natronolimnobius , for which the name Natronolimnobius aegyptiacus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JW/NM-HA 15T (=ATCC BAA-2088T =DSM 23470T).