During a study of bacterial diversity of soil, a novel strain, CA-15T, was isolated from Kyonggi University forest soil. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive and catalase- negative. Tyrosine was not oxidized but produced red pigmentation on an agar palte. Strain CA-15T hydrolysed Tween 60 and DNA. It grew at 15–35 °C (optimum, 25–30 °C), pH 6.0–10.0 (optimum, 7.0–9.0) and at 1.5 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain CA-15T formed a lineage within the family Caulobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria that was distinct from various species of the genus Brevundimonas . Brevundimonas bullata DSM 7126T was the closest member of strain CA-15T on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.48 %). Q-10 was only an isoprenoid quinone detected for strain CA-15T. The major polar lipids were 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α d-glucopyranuronosyl]glycerol, 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[α d-glucopyranosyl]-sn-glycerol, 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-α d-glucopyranuronosylglycerol, 1,2-diacyl-3-O-[6′-phosphatidyl-α d-glucopyranosyl]glycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl and C17 : 1ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain CA-15T was 63.6 mol%. The polyphasic characterization indicated that strain CA-15T represents a novel species in the genus Brevundimonas , for which the name Brevundimonas humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Brevundimonas humi is CA-15T (=KEMB 9005-528T=KACC 19106T=NBRC 112677T).
A novel slightly halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain P1BSRT, was isolated from water of a saline lake in Tunisia. Strain P1BSRT had motile (single polar flagellum), Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells, occurring singly or in pairs. Strain P1BSRT grew at temperatures between 15 and 45 °C (optimum 40 °C), and in a pH range between 6 and 8.5 (optimum pH 6.7). The strain required NaCl for growth (1 % w/v), and tolerated high NaCl concentration (up to 12 % w/v) with an optimum of 3 % (w/v). Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite served as terminal electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, fumarate, nitrate and nitrite. Strain P1BSRT utilized lactate, pyruvate, formate, d-fructose and glycerol as carbon and energy sources. The main cellular fatty acid was C16 : 0 (50.8 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain P1BSRT was affiliated to the genus Desulfovibrio , with the type strains Desulfovibrio salexigens (96.51 %), Desulfovibrio zosterae (95.68 %), Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis (94.81 %) and Desulfovibrio ferrireducens (94.73 %) as its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed to assign strain P1BSRT to a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio , Desulfovibrio salinus sp. nov. The type strain is P1BSRT (=DSM 101510T=JCM 31065T).
An orange-coloured myxobacterium, MNa11734T, was isolated from desert in Iran. MNa11734T had rod-shaped vegetative cells, moved by gliding and was bacteriolytic. No real fruiting body formation could be observed, but sporangioles were produced on water agar. The strain was mesophilic, strictly aerobic and chemoheterotrophic. 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed that MNa11734T belonged to the family Nannocystaceae, genus Nannocystis and was closely related to Nannocystis pusilla Na p29T (DSM 14622T) and Nannocystis exedens Na e1T (DSM 71T), with 97.8 and 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. Laboratory-measured DNA–DNA hybridization showed only 9.5/15.7 % (reciprocal) similarity between the novel strain and N. pusilla Na p29T, and 14.1/20.4 % between the strain and N. exedens Na e1T, whereas DNA–DNA hybridization estimates derived from draft genome sequences were 21.8–23.0 % and 22.2–23.7 %, respectively, depending on the calculation method. The G+C content of DNA from Nannocystis konarekensis MNa11734T was 73.3 mol%, for N. pusilla Nap29T it was 71.8 mol% and for N. exedens Nae1T it was 72.2 mol%. The major fatty acids of the new strain were C16 : 1 (56.2 %), iso-C17 : 0 (14.4 %), C14 : 0 (8.2 %), C16 : 0 (6.6 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (5.9 %). Strain MNa11734T exhibited phylogenetic and physiological similarities to the two other species of Nannocystis , i.e. N. pusilla and N. exedens, but the differences were sufficient enough to represent a novel species, for which the name Nannocystis konarekensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MNa11734T (=DSM 104509T=NCCB 100618T).
A bacterial strain, designated TH057T, was isolated from cyanobacterial aggregates in a eutrophic lake in China. Cells were observed to be slightly curved, rod-shaped, capsule-forming and stained Gram-negative. Optimal growth was obtained at pH 7.0 (range: pH 5–9) and 30 °C (range: 20–37 °C) in R2A broth. According to the absorption spectrum, carotenoids (455 and 490 nm) and light-harvesting complex LHI (857 nm) were present in the cells. The cells were found to be positive for oxidase and catalase activities. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The major fatty acids were identified as C17 : 1ω6c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω6c/C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified glycolipid and two sphingoglycolipids. Strain TH057T shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Sandarakinorhabdus limnophila so42T (96.8 %), followed by Polymorphobacter fuscus D40PT (95.8 %). The genomic G+C content of strain TH057T was 66.1 mol% based on total genome calculations. The average nucleotide identity and the digital DNA–DNA hybridization value for the complete genomes were 81.0 and 23.0 % between strain TH057T and Sandarakinorhabdus limnophila so42T. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, and genome analysis suggested that strain TH057T represents a novel species within the genus Sandarakinorhabdus , for which the name Sandarakinorhabdus cyanobacteriorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH057T (=CGMCC 1.15803T=LMG 30294T).
A heterotrophic, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, sodium-requiring and motile bacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated surface water of the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Strain O3.65T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107T and Phaeobacter inhibens T5T, both with 98.3 %, respectively. Based on complete genome analysis, highest similarity was observed to species of the genus Ruegeria . Strain O3.65T exhibited a broad salinity, temperature and pH range of 0.5–10 % NaCl, 4–45 °C and 5.5–9.0, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain O3.65T was 61.5 mol%. The major respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10), the most dominant fatty acids (>1 %) comprised 18 : 1ω7c and 18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl, 10 : 0 3OH, 12 : 1 3OH, 14 : 1 3OH/3-oxo-14 : 0, 16 : 0, 16 : 0 2OH, 18 : 1 2OH and 12 : 1. The polar lipid pattern indicated presence of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified phospholipids and seven unidentified lipids. On Difco marine broth agar, strain O3.65T formed smooth, shiny white to beige and convex colonies with regular edges. Phylogenetic, phylogenomic and phenotypic differences revealed that strain O3.65T represents a new species of a novel genus within the family Rhodobacteraceae , for which we propose the name Tritonibacter horizontis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of the type species is O3.65T (=DSM 101689T=LMG 29740T).
An aerobic, Gram-negative, motile by means of a single polar flagellum, and ovoid-shaped bacterium, designated D3T, was isolated from shallow stream sediments in Sinan-gun, South Korea. Growth occurred at 15–40 °C (optimum 35 °C), at pH 7.0–8.0 (optimum pH 7.0), and at an optimum NaCl concentration of 0.5 % (w/v). The major cellular fatty acids (>7 % of the total) were C16 : 0, C18 : 0 2-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c). The predominant quinone was ubiquinone-10, and the G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain D3T was 73.1 mol%. The major polyamine was spermidine. The major polar lipids of the isolate were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain D3T clustered with Roseomonas aquatica TR53T within the genus Roseomonas . The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain D3T showed the highest sequence similarity to R. aquatica TR53T (95.9 %), followed by Roseomonas rosea 173-96T (95.7 %) and Roseomonas aerilata 5420S-30T (95.0 %). Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterization, strain D3T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas , for which the name Roseomonas fluminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D3T (=KACC 19269T=JCM 31968T).
A bright-orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, motile, and rod-shaped bacterium, strain MAA42T, was isolated from a marine sponge of the genus Haliclona, which is in long-time culture in a marine aquarium system at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany. The strain grew at 4–34 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 0.5–9.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3.5 %) and at pH 4.5–10.0 (optimum pH 7.5). Strain MAA42T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.1 %) with the type strain of Litorimonas taeanensis. Sequence similarities to all other closely related type strains were below 97 %. DNA–DNA hybridization of strain MAA42T with L. taeanensis DSM 22008T resulted in values of 4.7 % (reciprocal 17.7 %). Major cellular fatty acids of strain MAA42T were C18 : 1ω7c (66.2 %), C18 : 1 2-OH (17.4 %), and C18 : 0 (14.1 %). Spermidine was predominant in the polyamine pattern, and ubiquinone Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipid profile contained the major compounds phosphatidylglycerol, monoglycosyldiglyceride, three unidentified phospholipids, and one unidentified glycolipid. Glucuronopyranosyldiglyceride was present as a minor compound. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 52.8 mol%. Based on the genotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic analyses, strain MAA42T represents a novel species of the genus Litorimonas , for which the name Litorimonas haliclonae is proposed. The type strain is MAA42T (=CCM 8709T=CIP 111178T=LMG 29765T).
A novel Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated and rod-shaped bacterium, designated HF004T, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 7.5–8.0 and in the presence of 2.0–3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain HF004T was a member of the genus Halioglobus , appearing to be closely related to Halioglobus pacificus (96.1 %) and Halioglobus japonicus (95.6 %). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (i.e. C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C17 : 1ω8c and C18 : 1ω7c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 57.2 mol%. Cells of strain HF004T were rod-shaped and formed circular, mucous and beige-pigmented colonies on marine agar after incubation for 72 h at 28 °C. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, strain HF004T is presented as a novel species, for which the name Halioglobus lutimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HF004T (=KCTC 42395T=MCCC 1H00127T).
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain LW15T, which was isolated from the external lesions of diseased farmed Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) from an intensive culture pond. Cells of strain LW15T were Gram-negative, facultative-anaerobic, non-motile, and both coccobacillus- and bacillus-shaped. Growth was observed at NaCl concentrations of 0–2 % (w/v) (optimum, 0 %), 4–32 °C (optimum, 25–28 °C) and pH 5.0–9.0 (optimum, 7.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LW15T was affiliated to the genus Acinetobacter , showing the highest similarity to Acinetobacter guillouiae CIP 63.46T (97.7 %) and other Acinetobacter species with validly published names (93.5–97.6 %). Whole-genome sequencing and phylogeny reconstruction based on a core set of 1061 Acinetobacter genes indicated that strain LW15T was most closely related to the clade formed by A. guillouiae CIP 63.46T and Acinetobacter bereziniae CIP 70.12T and distantly related to any of the described species of genus Acinetobacter . Furthermore, strain LW15T could be distinguished from all known Acinetobacter species by its ability to assimilate β-alanine and l-arginine, but not d-glucose. The principal fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was Q-9. Polar lipids of strain LW15T comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, four phospholipids, aminolipid and two unknown lipids. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic data, strain LW15T represents a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter , for which the name Acinetobacter piscicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LW15T (=MCCC 1K03337T=CICC 24241T=KCTC 62134T=JCM 32101T).
Strain M1-21T is a Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic and short-rod-shaped bacterium, motile by means of a single polar flagellum; it was isolated from freshwater sediment in Korea. It grew at 10–40 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 6.0–8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0–0.75 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal growth occurred in the absence of NaCl) on R2A agar, and it accumulated poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules inside the cells. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain M1-21T showed highest sequence similarity with Uliginosibacterium gangwonense (94.7 %) and Uliginosibacterium paludis (94.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain M1-21T belongs to the genus Uliginosibacterium . The DNA G+C content of strain M1-21T was 61.9 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total) were C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c and/or C16 : 1 ω7c), and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Strain M1-21T showed distinct phenotypic characteristics that differentiated it from species of the genus Uliginosibacterium . Based on these results, strain M1-21T represents a novel species of the genus Uliginosibacterium , for which the name Uliginosibacterium sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M1-21T (=KACC 19271T=JCM 32000T).
Two strains of soil bacteria, designated CA-16T and CA-161, were isolated from a sample of stream bank soil near Kyonggi University. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Colonies on tryptone soya agar were brownish cream in colour. Tyrosine, Tween 60 and Tween 40 were hydrolysed. The indole test was positive. Malic acid, lactic acid and valeric acid were assimilated. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains CA-16T and CA-161 formed a lineage within the family Comamonadaceae of the class Betaproteobacteria that were distinct from various species of the genus Simplicispira . Strain CA-16T was most closely related to Simplicispira metamorpha DSM 1837T (97.86 % sequence similarity), Simplicispira limi EMB325T (97.72 %), Simplicispira psychrophila DSM 11588T (96.83 %) and Simplicispira piscis RSG39T (96.71 %). Both strains contained Q-8 as the major isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids of the strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C18 : 1 ω7c-11methyl, C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C12 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of the strains were 63.9–64.4 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization similarities between strain CA-16T and other closest members of the genus Simplicispira ranged from 16 % to 24 %. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strains CA-16T and CA-161 represent a single novel species of the genus Simplicispira , for which the name Simplicispira soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CA-16T (=KEMB 9005-529T=KACC 19107T=NBRC 112689T).
An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium capable of degrading the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene was isolated from sediment of Pearl River and designated PrR001. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this strain was affiliated within the genus Defluviimonas in the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria and showed great similarity with the type strain Defluviimonas indica 20V17T (96.3 % similarity). The DNA G+C content of strain PrR001T was 68.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids comprised summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c/C18 : 1 ω6c), C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, C18 : 0 3OH, and C18 : 0. The sole respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone-10. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified phospholipids. Based on physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain PrR001T is suggested as a novel species in the genus Defluviimonas , for which the name Defluviimonas pyrenivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Defluviimonas pyrenivorans is PrR001T (=CICC 24263T=KCTC 62192T).