A yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Ktm-2T, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Strain Ktm-2T was able to grow at 15 to 40 °C, pH 4.5–10.0 and 0–2 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. This strain was taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain Ktm-2T represented a member of the genus Chitinophaga and shared highest sequence similarity with Chitinophaga barathri YLT18T (98.1 %), Chitinophaga cymbidii R156-2T (96.4 %) and Chitinophaga niabensis JS13-10T (96.3 %). The only respiratory quinone was menaqunone-7, the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 52.1 mol%. The DNA–DNA relatedness between strain Ktm-2T and C. barathri YLT18T was 22.0 %, which falls below the threshold value of 70 % for the strain to be considered a novel species. The morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguished this strain from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Thus, strain Ktm-2T represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga , for which the name Chitinophaga humicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ktm-2T (=KEMB 9005-693T=KACC 19388T=JCM 32158T).
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as P308H10T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern Indian Ocean. Growth occurred at 4–36 °C (optimum 20–25 °C), pH 6.0–8.5 (optimum 7.5–8.0) and in the presence of 1–8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2–3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P308H10T lies within the clade of members of the genus Arenibacter and is closely related to Arenibacter hampyeongensis HP12T (98.0 %), Arenibacter echinorum KMM 6032T (98.4 %), Arenibacter palladensis LMG 21972T (97.9 %), Arenibacter troitsensis KMM 3674T (97.9 %) and ‘ Arenibacter algicola’ TG409 (98.1 %). The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain P308H10T and the five reference strains were 85.9–80.6 % and 30.2–23.6 %, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain P308H10T were summed feature 3, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, five unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified lipids. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data presented, strain P308H10T represents a novel species of the genus Arenibacter , for which the name Arenibacter catalasegens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P308H10T (=GDMCC 1.1230T=KCTC 52983T). An emended description of the genus Arenibacter is also proposed.
A Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellated, gliding, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium, designated MEBiC 12267T, was isolated from green algae of Jeju Island. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain MEBiC 12267T was affiliated to the genus Euzebyella of the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed the highest similarity to Euzebyella marina KCTC 42440T (98.5 %). The DNA–DNA relatedness value of strain MEBiC 12267T with E. marina KCTC 42440T was 25 %. Growth was observed at 10–37 °C (optimum, 30–33 °C), at pH 6.0–9.5 (optimum, 8.0–8.5) and with 0.5–9.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5–3.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, seven unidentified lipids and two unidentified aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 40.7 mol%. On the basis of the data from the polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that the strain MEBiC 12267T represents a novel species within the genus Euzebyella, for which the name Euzebyella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of E. algicola is MEBiC 12267T (=KCCM 43264T=JCM 32170T).
A rod-shaped, Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacterium with no flexirubin-type pigment, designated as W201ET, was isolated from an intertidal sandy beach in Antarctica. The organism formed faintly yellow, round colonies on marine agar 2216E. The strain required sea salts for growth and grew optimally in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl at pH 7.0, 20 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain W201ET belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and showed the highest sequence similarity to Flavobacterium algicola NBRC 102673T (96.5 %). The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6, and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (which comprises C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c). The polar lipids of strain W201ET comprised one phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain W201ET was 34.1 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic analyses, this isolate was considered to represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium ovatum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W201ET (=KCTC 52693T=MCCC 1K03251T=CGMCC 1.16053T).
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium that produced yellow viscous colonies, designated FL-8T, was isolated from farmland soil in Chuzhou, Anhui province, PR China. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain FL-8T and the type strains of species of the genus Terrimonas with validly published names ranged from 94.6 to 96.1 %. Strain FL-8T contained iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the predominant fatty acids. The predominant polar lipid of strain FL-8T was phosphatidylethanolamine. The sole respiratory quinone of strain FL-8T was MK-7 and the DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain FL-8T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Terrimonas , for which the name Terrimonas soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FL-8T (=CCTCC AB 2017059T=JCM 32095T).
A novel bacterial strain, IHBB 10212T, of the genus Chryseobacterium was isolated from a glacier near the Kunzum Pass located in the Lahaul-Spiti in the North-Western Himalayas of India. The cells were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-sporulating, single rods, lacked flagella, and formed yellow to orange pigmented colonies. The strain utilized maltose, trehalose, sucrose, gentibiose, glucose, mannose, fructose, mannitol, arabitol and salicin for growth. Flexirubin-type pigments were produced by strain IHBB 10212T. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed relatedness of strain IHBB 10212T to Chryseobacterium polytrichastri DSM 26899T (97.43 %), Chryseobacterium greenlandense CIP 110007T (97.29 %) and Chryseobacterium aquaticum KCTC 12483T (96.80 %). Iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c) constituted the major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids present were six unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified phospholipid and three unidentified lipids. MK-6 was identified as the major quinone. The DNA G+C content was 34.08 mol%. Digital DNA–DNA hybridization of strain IHBB 10212T with C. polytrichastri , C. greenlandense and C. aquaticum showed values far below the prescribed thresholds of 95 % for average nucleotide identity and 70 % for the Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator for species delineation. Based on its differences from validly published Chryseobacterium species, strain IHBB 10212T is identified as a new species, for which the proposed name is Chryseobacterium glaciei sp. nov., with IHBB 10212T as the type strain (=MTCC 12457T=JCM 31156T=KACC 19170T).
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain 3PC125-7T, which was isolated from the deep sea water of the Indian Ocean. The bacterium was rod-shaped, non-flagellated, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive and strictly aerobic. Optimal growth was observed at 25–37 °C, at pH 7 and in 1–3 % (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain 3PC125-7T represents a member of the genus Muricauda , with the highest sequence similarity to Muricauda olearia CL-SS4T (96.7 %), followed by Muricauda marina H19-56T (96.7 %) and nine other species of the genus Muricauda (93.5–95.8 %). The principal fatty acids of 3PC125-7T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1G and the sole respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The polar lipids comprise phosphatidylethanolamine, six unidentified phospholipids and three unknown lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of 3PC125-7T was 41.8 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data obtained in this study, strain 3PC125-7T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Muricauda , for which the name Muricauda indica sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 3PC125-7T (=MCCC 1A03198T=KCTC 52318T).
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium, designated YHM-9T, was isolated from soil in Yangquan, Shanxi Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YHM-9T belonged to the genus Pedobacter and shared the highest similarity (97.4 %) to the type strain Pedobacter lignilitoris W-WS13T. Strain YHM-9T exhibited low DNA–DNA relatedness with P. lignilitoris W-WS13T (21.7±1.3 %). The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The respiratory quinone was MK-7, the major polyamine was sym-homospermidine and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain YHM-9T was recognized as a representative of a novel species within the genus Pedobacter , for which the name Pedobacter agrisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YHM-9T (=JCM 32093T=CCTCC AB 2017125T).
A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-orange pigmented flavobacterium, designated strain 9Alg 151T, was isolated from the Pacific red alga Tichocarpus crinitus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain fell into the genus Aquimarina of the family Flavobacteriaceae with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity range of 94.2–98.2 % to the recognized species of the genus. Strain 9Alg 151T grew in the presence of 0.5–5 % NaCl and at 5–34 °C, and hydrolysed aesculin, agar, gelatin, starch, Tween 40, DNA and chitin. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω8c and summed feature 3. The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The genomic DNA G+C content was 32.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain 9Alg 151T represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina , for which the name Aquimarina algiphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9Alg 151T (=KCTC 23622T=KMM 6462T).
A non-motile, proteorhodopsin-containing, yellow and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated ZODW10T, was isolated from the seaweed Zostera marina collected from the West Sea, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and non-motile. The isolate required sea salts for growth. A carotenoid pigment was produced. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ZODW10T forms an evolutionary lineage within the radiation enclosing members of the genus Dokdonia with Dokdonia diaphoros CIP 108745T (96.7 % sequence similarity) as its nearest neighbour. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1 G. Strain ZODW10T contained menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified polar lipid as the only isoprenoid quinone and the major polar lipids, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain ZODW10T was 36 mol%. On the basis of the present polyphasic characterization, it is suggested that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Dokdonia , for which the name Dokdonia flava sp. nov. (type strain, ZODW10T=KCTC 52953T=JCM 32293T) is proposed.
Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated WV39T, isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39T was closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium noncentrifugens NBRC 108844T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008T (94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c). Menaquinone-6 was the sole quinone identified, and the major pigment was zeaxanthin. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA–DNA relatedness of strain WV39T with respect to its closest phylogenetic neighbours was 41.8 % for F. qiangtangense JCM 19739T, 25.5 % for F. aquatile LMG 4008T and 25.2 % for F. noncentrifugens NBRC 108844T. The DNA G+C content of strain WV39T was 39.8 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain WV39T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium , for which the name Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WV39T (=KCTC 42908T=CECT 9085T).
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and pale yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain TX0661T, was isolated from an automotive air conditioning system collected in the Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain TX0661T was grouped with members of the genus Flavisolibacter and the strain had 98.2–95.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the species of the genus Flavisolibacter . DNA–DNA relatedness between TX0661T and Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans KCTC 22818T and Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli KCTC 12657T was less than 30 %. The low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness identified strain TX0661T as a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter . The strain grew at 28–37 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 6.0–7.0 (optimum, pH 6.5) and in the presence of 0–0.5 % (w/v, optimum, 0.5 %) NaCl. It contained summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as major fatty acids and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The polar lipid profile revealed that the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, aminoglycophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 49.1 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain TX0661T represents a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter , for which the name Flavisolibacter metallilatus sp. nov. (=KACC 19145T=KCTC 52779T=NBRC 111784T) is proposed.
A Gram-negative, motile by gliding, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated S7-3-19T, was isolated from apple orchard soil in Gyeongsangnam-do Province, Republic of Korea, and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain S7-3-19T belonged to the family Cytophagaceae and was most closely related to Spirosoma linguale DSM 74T (96.38 %), Spirosoma fluviale MSd3T (96.38 %), Spirosoma pulveris JSH5-14T (96.35 %) and Spirosoma radiotolerans DG5AT (96.24 %). Chemotaxonomic characteristics supported the classification of strain S7-3-19T within the genus Spirosoma . Summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1 ω6c; 46.7 %) and C16 : 1ω5c (23.8 %) were the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified lipids were the major polar lipids. Menaquinone with seven isoprene units was the predominant respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain S7-3-19T was 48.6 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic properties, genotypic distinctiveness and chemotaxonomic features, strain S7-3-19T represents a novel species of the genus Spirosoma , for which the name Spirosoma horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S7-3-19T (=KCTC 52728T=JCM 32131T).
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, red-pigmented, aerobic bacterium, strain M2T, was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western Pacific Ocean at a depth of 1000 m and characterized using polyphasic taxonomy. Strain M2T was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells grew at 4–33 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6–9 (optimum, 7) and with 0–4 % (w/v) (optimum, 1 %) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain M2T was associated with the genus Hymenobacter. Strain M2T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Hymenobacter actinosclerus CCUG 39621T (95.7 %), Hymenobacter tibetensis XTM003T (95.6 %) and Hymenobacter psychrotolerans Tibet-IIU11T (95.2 %). The DNA G+C content was 59.98 mol%. Strain M2T contained C16 : 1ω5c (25.0 %), iso-C15 : 0 (23.9 %) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c, 20.4 %) as major cellular fatty acids. The major quinone of strain M2T was menaquinone 7 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major polyamine of strain M2T was sym-homospermidine. The phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical data showed that strain M2T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter profundi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M2T (=CCTCC AB 2017185T=KCTC 62120T).