A novel actinobacterial strain, designated EPI-7T, was isolated on R2A agar from human skin (keratinocytes) and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain EPI-7T showed a Gram-positive reaction, was non-motile, non-spore-forming, and cells had a rod-shape. Colonies were round, convex and pale yellow. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel isolate formed a cluster with several uncultured bacterial clones and with cultured members of the genera Modestobacter and Sporichthya . The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with respect to the type strains of recognized species from the above genera and other phylogenetic neighbours ranged from 92.6 to 93.4 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.9 mol%. The only isoprenoid quinone was MK-9(H4), and the major fatty acids detected were C17 : 1ω8c, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, three unidentified phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified amino lipids and three unidentified lipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid and alanine. Whole-cell sugars present included rhamnose, glucose and galactose. The combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data allowed differentiation of strain EPI-7T from its closest phylogenetic neighbours and provided evidence that strain EPI-7T represents a novel genus and species in the family Sporichthyaceae . The name Epidermidibacterium keratini gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain being EPI-7T (=KCCM 90264T=JCM 31644T).
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile and short-rod-shaped actinobacterium, designated THG-T121T, was isolated from forest soil. Growth occurred at 10–40 °C (optimum 28–30 °C), at pH 6–8 (optimum 7) and at 0–4 % NaCl (optimum 1 %). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-T121T were identified as Actinotalea ferrariae KCTC 29134T (97.9 %), Actinotalea fermentans KCTC 3251T (97.3 %), Cellulomonas carbonis KCTC 19824T (97.2 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities among strain THG-T121T and other recognized species were lower than 97.0 %. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two phosphatidylinositol mannosides, one unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified lipid. The isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone (MK-10(H4)). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 1 A, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The whole-cell sugars of strain THG-T121T were rhamnose, ribose, mannose and glucose. The peptidoglycan type of strain THG-T121T is A4β, containing l-Orn–D-Ser–L-Asp. The DNA G+C content of strain THG-T121T was 72.4 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain THG-T121T and A. ferrariae KCTC 29134T, A. fermentans KCTC 3251T and C. carbonis KCTC 19824T were 30.2 % (27.3 %, reciprocal analysis), 28.4 %, (17.3 %) and 16.9 %, (9.3 %), respectively. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic data, physiological characteristics and DNA–DNA hybridization data, strain THG-T121T represents a novel species of the genus Actinotalea , for which the name Actinotalea solisilvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-T121T (=KACC 19191T=CGMCC 4.7389T).
Three bacterial strains, HKU63T, HKU64 and HKU65T, were isolated from the conjunctival swabs of three patients with conjunctivitis in Hong Kong. The three strains were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, non-sporulating and non-motile bacilli and exhibited unique biochemical profiles distinguishable from closely related Tsukamurella species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the three strains shared identical sequences with each other, being most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens and Tsukamurella pulmonis, sharing 99.9 % sequence identity. Sequence analysis of three additional housekeeping genes, groEL, secA and rpoB, revealed 100 % nucleotide sequence identity between HKU63T and HKU64, 94.2–97.0 % nucleotide sequence identities between HKU63T/HKU64 and HKU65T and the three strains shared 82.9–98.9 % sequence identities with other currently recognized Tsukamurella species. DNA–DNA hybridization confirmed that they were distinct from other known species of the genus Tsukamurella (23.0±4.2 to 50.7±3.7 % DNA–DNA relatedness), of which HKU63T and HKU64 represented the same species (≥95.2±4.8 % DNA–DNA relatedness) while HKU65T represented another species. Fatty acid, mycolic acid, cell-wall sugar and peptidoglycan analyses showed that they were typical of members of Tsukamurella . The G+C content of strains HKU63T, HKU64 and HKU65T were 71.3±1.9, 71.3±2.0 and 71.2±2.3 mol% (mean±sd; n=3), respectively. A novel species, Tsukamurella ocularis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strains HKU63T and HKU64, with HKU63T (=JCM 31969T=DSM 105034T) designated as the type strain whilst another novel species, Tsukamurella hominis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the third strain, HKU65T, which is designated as the type strain (=JCM 31971T=DSM 105036T).
Strain SYSU D8010T was isolated from a desert sand sample collected in Saudi Arabia. The taxonomic position of the isolate was investigated by the polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate was found to be Gram-positive and aerobic. The strain was able to grow at 14–40 °C, pH 5.0–9.0 and in the presence of up to 22 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain SYSU D8010T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as cell-wall diamino acid, and arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose and rhamnose as the whole-cell sugars. The primary polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositolmannosides. Menaquinone MK-9(H4) was detected as the respiratory quinone; and anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as the predominant fatty acids. Pairwise comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SYSU D8010T had a sequence similarity of 97.8 % to Saccharopolyspora halophila YIM 90500T. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SYSU D8010T was determined to be 69.9 mol%. Based on the analyses of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain SYSU D8010T was determined to represent a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora , for which the name Saccharopolyspora deserti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is SYSU D8010T (=KCTC 39989T=CPCC 204620T).
A novel actinobacterial strain, designated X5T, was isolated from the sediment of Taihu Lake in China and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The strain formed orange–red colonies comprising aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped cells on R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism was closely related to the genus Sporichthya and consistently formed a distinct clade along with the members of this genus. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was Sporichthya polymorpha NBRC 12702T with 93.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0 (18.7 %), C18 : 1ω9c (18.6 %) and C17 : 1ω8c (14.0 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 74.4 mol%. The organism contained menaquinone MK-8(H2), MK-9(H4) and an unidentified menaquinone. Polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified lipid, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified aminolipids. The whole-cell sugars contained ribose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, the organism is proposed to represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Longivirga aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X5T (=CGMCC 4.7317T=NBRC 112237T).