A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic status of a Blastococcus strain isolated from an extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil. The isolate, strain P6T, was found to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Blastococcus . It was shown to form a well-supported branch in the Blastococcus 16S rRNA gene tree together with the type strains of Blastococcus capsensis and Blastococcus saxobsidens and was distinguished from the latter, its close phylogenetic neighbour, by a broad range of phenotypic properties. The draft genome sequence of isolate P6T showed 84.6 % average nucleotide identity, 83.0 % average amino acid identity and a digital DNA–DNA hybridisation value of 27.8 % in comparison with the genome sequence of B. saxobsidens DSM 44509T, values consistent with its assignment to a separate species. Based on these data it is proposed that isolate P6T (NCIMB 15090T=NRRL B-65468T) be assigned to the genus Blastococcus as Blastococcus atacamensis sp. nov. Analysis of the whole genome sequence of B. atacamensis P6T, with 3778 open reading frames and a genome size of 3.9 Mb showed the presence of genes and gene clusters that encode for properties that reflect its adaptation to the extreme environmental conditions that prevail in Atacama Desert soils.
A novel actinomycete, strain TRM 41368T, was isolated from a silt sample from Xiaoerkule lake in Xinjiang province, China, and was examined using a polyphasic approach. Strain TRM 41368T was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 5 % (w/v), and an optimum temperature for growth of 35–37 °C. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain TRM 41368T was most closely related to Glycomycesfuscus TRM 49117T (98.46 % similarity). However, it had a relatively low DNA–DNA relatedness value with G. fuscus TRM 49117T (ANI=70.59 %). The organism had chemical and morphological features typical of the genus Glycomyces . The cell wall of TRM 41368T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid; xylose, ribose and glucose were the major whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositolmannosides. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 69.9 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence, strain TRM 41368T should be designated as a novel species of the genus Glycomyces , for which the name Glycomyces xiaoerkulensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 41368T (=CCTCC AA 2017005T=KCTC 39932T).
A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, milky-white to creamy coloured and rod-shaped bacterium, designated BS05T, was isolated from compost. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Brevibacterium and was most closely related to Brevibacterium avium NCFB 3055T (96.3 %), Brevibacterium oceani BBH7T (96.2 %) and Brevibacterium epidermidis NBRC 14811T (96.1 %). The DNA G+C content was 62.3 mol%. The predominant quinone was MK-8(H2). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain BS05T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylglycerol. Moreover, the low sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic analyses allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain BS05T from the recognized species of the genus Brevibacterium . Therefore, strain BS05T represents a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium , for which the name Brevibacterium hankyongi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain BS05T (=KACC 18875T=LMG 29562T).
A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-mq3T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) collected from Xianglu Mountain in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China, and characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the organism should be assigned to the genus Sphaerisporangium and that it forms a monophyletic clade with its closest relatives ‘ Sphaerisporangium dianthi ’ NEAU-CY18T (99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291T (98.8 %). Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-mq3T were also consistent with the description of the genus Sphaerisporangium . The whole-cell sugars were madurose, mannose, ribose and glucose. The menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4), MK-9(H0) and MK-9(H6). The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unidentified polar lipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl C17 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c and C17 : 1ω7c. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain NEAU-mq3T and its most closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that NEAU-mq3T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-mq3T represents a novel species of the genus Sphaerisporangium , for which the name Sphaerisporangium rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-mq3T (=CGMCC 4.7429T=JCM 32389T).
A red pigmented actinobacterium designated G2T, forming extremely branched vegetative hyphae, vesicles and mutilocular sporangia, was isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia nodules. The strain failed to nodulate its original host plant but effectively nodulated members of actinorhizal Rhamnales. The taxonomic position of G2T was determined using a polyphasic approach. The peptidoglycan of the strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylinositol (PI), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), glycophospholipids (GPL1–2), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), aminophospholipid (APL) and unknown lipids (L). The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H4) and MK-9 (H6) while the major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c and C15 : 0. The size of the genome of G2T was 9.5 Mb and digital DNA G+C content was 70.9 %. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4–99.5 % sequence identity with the type strains of species of the genus Frankia . Digital DNA –DNA hybridisation (dDDH) values between G2T and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours Frankia elaeagni and Frankia discariae were below the threshold of 70 %. On the basis of these results, strain G2T (=DSM 45899T=CECT 9038T) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species Frankia irregularis sp. nov.
Rare Actinobacteria , known as non- Streptomyces , hold great potential to produce new bioactive compounds for drug development. A strain designated DSW09T, which belongs those rare Actinobacteria , was isolated from surface seawater of the East China Sea. The cells were aerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped (0.4 µm wide and 1.5–4.0 µm long). The closest relative was Euzebya tangerina F10T (96.46 % of 16S rRNA gene similarity). Cell growth occurred at 15–45 °C (optimum, 25–30 °C), at pH 6.0–9.0 (pH 6.0–7.0) and at NaCl concentrations of 0.5–5.0 % (w/v; 1.0–4.0 %). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C15 : 0 iso 2OH), C17 : 1 ω8c and C16 : 0. The predominant polar lipid was diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The cell-wall peptidoglycan was A1 γ–type, containing meso-DPA. The major cell-wall sugars were rhamnose and ribose. The genome size was 5 509 297 bp with a 71.29 mol% G+C content for strain DSW09T, while 4 781 440 bp with a 68.87 mol% G+C content for E. tangerina F10T. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridization values between strain DSW09T and E. tangerina F10T were 73.44 % and 16.43 %, respectively. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic evidence and genomic analyses, strain DSW09T is a novel species of genus Euzebya , for which the name Euzebya rosea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DSW09T (=DMS 104446T=MCCC 1K03290T).
A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic actinobacterium, designated BMP B8004T, was isolated from desert soil collected in Xinjiang Province, Northwest China. It produced an extensively branched non-fragmenting substrate mycelium, and very scanty aerial mycelium that formed a short hooked chain of arthrospores with a smooth surface. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C, pH 7.0 and 0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BMP B8004T formed a distinct phyletic lineage within the genus Actinomadura . It shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Actinomadura apis IM17-1T (99.2 %) and Actinomadura rifamycini NBRC 14183T (98.6 %). However, it could be distinguished from the two closest strains based on the low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness (52.7±0.7 and 45±1.8 %, respectively). Chemotaxonomic characteristics, including the main phospholipids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides, the major menaquinones MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), the predominant fatty acids iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 0 10-methyl and C18 : 1ω9c, were also consistent with the properties of the genus Actinomadura . The DNA G+C content of strain BMP B8004T was 71.9 mol%. Based on phenotypic and genotypic features, strain BMP B8004T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Actinomadura , for which the name Actinomadura deserti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BMP B8004T (=CGMCC 4.7432T=KCTC 39998T).
A novel Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinomycete, designated strain SMC 195T, was isolated from soil collected from a mangrove forest in Thailand. The strain produced extensively branched substrate and aerial mycelia. The substrate mycelium was fragmented into rod-shaped elements, and spore chains consisting of smooth and rod-shaped spores were formed on the aerial mycelium. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SMC 195T represented a member of the genus Pseudonocardia , and the most closely phylogenetically related species were Pseudonocardia yuanmonensis JCM 18055T (99.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudonocardia halophobica NRRL B-16514T (98.9 %) and Pseudonocardia kujensis NRRL B-24890T (98.7 %). However, the DNA–DNA relatedness values between SMC 195Tand the closest phylogenetically related species were significantly below 70 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 74±0.8 mol%. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and ribose. The menaquinone was MK-8(H4) only. The major cellular fatty acid was the branched fatty acid iso-C16 : 0 (33.6 %). The polar lipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified glycolipids. On the basis of the results from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic studies, it is concluded that SMC 195T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia , for which the name Pseudonocardia mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SMC 195T (=TBRC 7778T=NBRC 113150T).
A strictly aerobic Gram-stain-positive bacterial strain, designated IB-3T, was isolated from a car air-conditioning system in the Republic of Korea. Cells were non-motile rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of IB-3T was observed at 20–40 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.5–9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0–1 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Menaquinone-8 (H4) was detected as the predominant respiratory quinone and iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C17 : 1ω8c, C18 : 0, 10-methyl-C18 : 0 (TBSA) and C17 : 0 were identified as the major cellular fatty acids. Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol were detected as the major polar lipids. The major cell wall peptidoglycan type was ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.5 mol%. IB-3T was most closely related to Nocardioides terrigena DS-17T with a 98.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that IB-3T formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Nocardioides of the family Nocardioidaceae . On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, IB-3T represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides , for which the name Nocardioides currus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IB-3T (=KACC 19522T=JCM 32672T).
Strain ARgP5T, an actinobacterium isolated from a root nodule present on an Alnus incana subspecies rugosa shrub growing in Quebec City, Canada, was the subject of polyphasic taxonomic studies to clarify its status within the genus Frankia . 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and ANI values between ARgP5T and type strains of species of the genus Frankia with validly published names were 98.8 and 82 % or less, respectively. The in silico DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. ARgP5T is characterised by the presence of meso-A2pm, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose (trace), ribose and xylose as whole-organism hydrolysates; MK-9(H8) as predominant menaquinone; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol as polar lipids and iso-C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω8c as major fatty acids. The proteomic results confirmed the distinct position of ARgP5T from its closest neighbours in Frankia cluster 1. ARgP5T was found to be infective on two alder (Alnus glutinosa and Alnusalnobetula subsp. crispa) and on one bayberry (Morella pensylvanica) species and to fix nitrogen in symbiosis and in pure culture. On the basis of phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene sequence), genomic, proteomic and phenotypic results, strain ARgP5T (=DSM 45898=CECT 9033) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Frankia for which the name Frankia canadensis sp. nov., is proposed.
A novel actinomycete, strain SDA37T, belonging to the genus Actinomadura , was isolated from rhizosphere soil collected from Udon Thani Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose, galactose and madurose were detected in cell-wall and whole-cell hydrolysates. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, 10-methyl C18 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. blast analysis of the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence showed 98.8 % similarity to Actinomadura oligospora NBRC 104149T, 98.7 % similarity to Actinomadura gamaensis DSM 100815T and 97.2 % similarity to Actinomadura rupiterrae KCTC 19559T. The DNA G+C content was 73.1 mol%. Strain SDA37T showed low DNA–DNA relatedness (44.3±7.3 to 58.5±8.7 %) to A. oligospora NBRC 104149T, Actinomadura gamaensis DSM 100815T and Actinomadura rupiterrae KCTC 19559T. The new strain could also be distinguished from its closely related strains by the differences in the phenotypic characteristics. The results of taxonomic analysis suggested that strain SDA37T represented a novel species of the genus Actinomadura for which the name Actinomadura rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SDA37T (=KCTC 39965T=NBRC 112909T=TISTR 2523T).
A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain A-T 8314T, was isolated from a wild orchid, Podochilus microphyllus Lindl., collected from Trat Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of strain A-T 8314T was established using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic analyses. The isolate was a Gram-positive bacterium that developed bud-like spore chains. Strain A-T 8314T grew aerobically at an optimum temperature of 20–25 °C and an optimal pH 6.0. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the whole-cell sugars were ribose, arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 (H4). The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and hydroxyl phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant cellular fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.2±0.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain A-T 8314T belonged to the genus Actinomycetospora , and was most closely related to Actinomycetospora chiangmaiensis YIM 0006T (98.8 %) and Actinomycetospora corticicola 014-5T (98.6 %). The DNA–DNA relatedness values that distinguished A-T 8314T from its closest species were below 70 %. Following an evaluation of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic studies, it was concluded that the new isolate represents as a novel species, for which the name Actinomycetospora endophytica sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is A-T 8314T (=TBRC 5722T=NBRC 113235T).
A novel Saccharopolyspora strain, designated 3SS5-12T, isolated from mangrove sediment collected from Ranong Province is described. The strain was characterized by pale yellow branching aerial mycelium which differentiated into flexuous chains of spores covered with tufts of short curved hairs. The whole-cell hydrolysates of the strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, with arabinose, galactose and ribose as the main sugars. A major menaquinone of this strain was MK-9(H4). Mycolic acids were absent. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.4 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, unidentified phospholipids and unidentified lipids. Phylogenetic determination based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the organism was classified in the genus Saccharopolyspora and highly similar to Saccharopolyspora jiangxiensis W12T (98.8 % sequence similarity), Saccharopolyspora hirsuta subsp. kobensis JCM 9109T (98.8 %), Saccharopolyspora antimicrobica I05-00074T (98.2 %) and Saccharopolyspora indica VRC122T (98.1 %). Evidence from the chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and molecular systematic data indicated that strain 3SS5-12T should be classified as a representing novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora , for which the name Saccharopolyspora maritima sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3SS5-12T (=TBRC 7048T=NBRC 112863T).
A novel actinomycete, designated strain SJ-25T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain SJ-25T belonged to the genus Glycomyces and was closely related to Glycomyces scopariae YIM 56256T (99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Glycomyces artemisiae IXS4T (98.8 %), Glycomyces sambucus E71T (98.7 %) and Glycomyces mayteni YIM 61331T (98.4 %). Moreover, key morphological and chemotaxonomic properties also confirmed the affiliation of strain SJ-25T to the genus Glycomyces . The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose and xylose. The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, glycolipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The menaquinones were MK-11, MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H2). Major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 72.2 mol%. The combination of DNA–DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain SJ-25T could be distinguished from its closely related strains. Therefore, it is proposed that strain SJ-25T represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces , for which the name Glycomyces dulcitolivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SJ-25T (=CGMCC 4.7414T=DSM 105121T).